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Q&A: Missed Tests & Athlete Whereabouts Information
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Page 1
Q&A: Missed Tests & Athlete Whereabouts Information
Updated: February 7, 2007
Page 1
Q&A: Missed Tests & Athlete Whereabouts Information
What rules does the World Anti-Doping Code (Code) currently include
in relation to whereabouts information?
Article 14.3 of the Code states that “Athletes who have been identified by
their International Federation (for international athletes) or National Anti-
Doping Organization (for national athletes) for inclusion in an out-of-
competition* testing pool shall provide accurate, current location
information.” Each of these anti-doping organizations (ADOs) is
responsible for defining the specific criteria for inclusion of athletes in its
registered testing pool (for example, a specified world ranking cut-off, a
specified time standard, membership of a national team, etc), but the pool
must include at a minimum the top-ranked athletes in the sport/country.
Whereabouts requirements are set by the athlete’s ADO in order to allow
some flexibility based upon varying circumstances encountered in different
sports and countries.
What rules does the World Anti-Doping Code currently include in
relation to missed tests?
Article 2.4 of the Code lists missed tests as a possible anti-doping rule
violation, in the following wording: “Violation of applicable requirements
regarding athlete availability for out-of-competition testing including failure
to provide required whereabouts information and missed tests which are
declared based on reasonable rules.”
Such violation can result in a sanction for the athlete from three months to
two years in accordance with the rules established by the ADO whose test
was missed or whose whereabouts requirement was violated, under Article
10.4.3 of the Code.
Has WADA developed any other rules or guidelines in relation to
whereabouts and missed tests?
WADA has developed an International Standard for Testing, which entered
into force at the same time as the Code in January 2004 and is mandatory
for signatories to the Code. This Standard—whose purpose is to plan for
effective testing and to maintain the integrity and identity of samples
throughout the testing process, from notifying the athlete to transporting
samples for analysis—expands on the requirements for ADOs for establishing
registered testing pools and collecting athlete whereabouts information.

Page 2
Q&A: Missed Tests & Athlete Whereabouts Information
Updated: February 7, 2007
Page 2
WADA has also developed a number of guidelines relating to doping control
activities. These guidelines are not mandatory, but provide recommended
solutions to stakeholders in different areas of anti-doping. Among this set of
models of best practice relating to whereabouts information and missed tests
are guidelines for whereabouts information, out-of-competition testing, and
results management. For example, WADA’s Guideline for Athlete
Whereabouts Information recommends that ADOs should require athletes to
submit their whereabouts information at a minimum on a quarterly basis.
When do missed tests result in a possible anti-doping rule violation?
The Code currently leaves some flexibility to ADOs as relates to missed tests,
based upon varying circumstances encountered in different sports and
countries. However, WADA’s Guideline for Athlete Whereabouts Information
recommends that the relevant ADO should proceed with the result
management process following three missed tests, or three recorded
warnings for failure to provide whereabouts information, or a combination of
failure to provide whereabouts information and missed tests, in a period of
18 months.
Who is responsible for managing missed tests?
The ADO that initiated and directed sample collection (or, if no sample
collection is involved, the ADO which discovered the violation) is responsible
for results management. Missed tests as part of WADA’s worldwide out-of-
competition testing program are managed by the relevant International
Federation (IF).
Are there any global statistics available about missed tests?
Not yet. Statistics will be available when more ADOs will implement ADAMS
(Anti-Doping Administration & Management System), the web-based
database management system aimed at coordinating anti-doping activities
worldwide. ADAMS was officially launched in November 2005. Dozens of
ADOs have been trained to use the system, which is made available by
WADA free of charge in French, English and Spanish.
Does WADA have statistics available about missed tests in relation to
its own out-of-competition testing program?

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Q&A: Missed Tests & Athlete Whereabouts Information
Updated: February 7, 2007
Page 3
Out of 3,279 tests conducted by WADA in 2006, 140 (4.2%) resulted in an
“unavailable athlete report.” Following review of the circumstances by the
relevant IFs, 30 of these tests (0.9% of the overall number of tests
conducted as part of WADA’s out-of-competition testing program) were
declared “missed.”
Recently, the German national anti-doping agency (NADA) released
figures mentioning 385 missed tests in Germany in 2006. What is
WADA’s reaction to this situation?
This situation highlights the need to properly educate athletes as relates to
their responsibilities to provide accurate and updated whereabouts
information to their ADOs. In addition, WADA is in contact with NADA and is
being kept informed by NADA of follow-up measures in relation to this
situation.
Does WADA expect changes in relation to missed tests and
whereabouts as part of the ongoing World Anti-Doping Code review?
As part of the Code review and consultation currently underway, many
stakeholders have requested greater harmony among signatories in relation
to both the requirements and consequences of whereabouts information and
missed tests. These concerns will be addressed through a revision of the
existing International Standard for Testing, in parallel to the Code review.
As relates to sanctions for failure to provide whereabouts information and/or
missed tests, the first draft revision of the Code stipulates that the period of
ineligibility shall be at a minimum one year and at a maximum two years.
The second of three stakeholder consultation periods as relates to the Code
review is ongoing and may result in further changes to the proposal.
XXXXXXXXXXXX
* Words in bold are defined in the Code and other WADA documents:
Anti-Doping Organization (ADO): An organization that is responsible for
adopting rules for initiating, implementing or enforcing any part of the doping
control process. This includes, for example, the International Olympic
Committee (IOC), the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), other major
event organizations that conduct testing at their events, the World

Page 4
Q&A: Missed Tests & Athlete Whereabouts Information
Updated: February 7, 2007
Page 4
Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), International Sports Federations (IFs), and
National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADOs).
Missed Test: A missed test is a situation in which an athlete is not available
for out-of-competition testing at the time and place he/she indicated he/she
would be.
Unannounced out-of-competition testing can be conducted anytime,
anywhere, and as such is the most effective means of deterrence and
detection of doping. To make out-of-competition testing possible and
efficient, and as part of their responsibilities, athletes are required to provide
their ADO with accurate whereabouts information and to update them if
needed.
A missed test must be differentiated from a refusal or failure to submit to
sample collection, which would occur after notification, for example, by
hiding from a doping control officer who was attempting to conduct a test.
Out-of-competition testing: Any doping control which is not in-
competition.
Registered Testing Pool: The pool of top level athletes established
separately by each IF and NADO who are subject to both in-competition and
out-of-competition testing as part of that IF’s or NADO’s test distribution
plan. Each IF must clearly define the specific criteria for inclusion of athletes
in its registered testing pool. For example, the criteria could be a specified
world ranking cut-off, a specified time standard, membership on a national
team, etc.
Results Management: Phase which includes the review of the finding,
possible hearings, and adjudication of possible sanctions.
Whereabouts Information: Information provided by the athlete or a
representative nominated by the athlete which details the athlete’s location
on a daily basis in order to enable testing.