THE SVVEDISH DISCIPLINE, RELIGIOVS, CIVILE, And MILITARY. THE FIRST PART, IN THE Formes of Prayer daily used by those of the Swe­dish Nation, in the Armie. Together with two se­verall Prayers, uttered upon severall occasions by that pious King; which GOD immedi­ately heard and granted him. The second Part, in the excellent Orders observed in the Armie; whereof we here present you the Articles, by which the Souldiery is governed. The third Part, in the Kings Commission for levy­ing of a Regiment: his Order for drawing vp of a private Company; of a Squadron; and of a Brigade: with his manner of Enquartering a private Regiment; and of an Army Royall: vnto which is added the best manner of buil­ding and fortifying of a Towne of Warre. All, in fiue severall Figures expressed and explained. Last of all, Is the famous Battell of Leip­sich, in two fayre Figures also set forth: and now this second time more fully and particularly described.

LONDON, Printed by Iohn Dawson for Nath: Butter and Nich: Bourne. 1632.

TO ALL GENTLEMEN PRACTITIONERS AND Lovers of Armes, in all the Cities and Corporations of the Kingdome.


THat which I here pre­sent you with, is a Mi­litary Argument: the fitter for Military men therefore: whose Ex­ercise and Delight, is in the fayre practise of peaceable Armes. This is my best hope, that it may be fa­vourably accepted, for that my Theme and my Patrones are so well suited. So should every thing be, about a Souldier. [Page] I doe it not upon any vaine thoughts or presumption, to teach you new wayes: a many of you, and your Leaders espe­cially, are so curious I know, & so skil­full, at least, in the Theory of a Souldier, that you need not my Booke for a Mai­ster in this kinde. Tis meant for your Recreation: to put you into Discourse now and then: and to testifie withall, mine owne private respects both to your Persons, and of your Practise; thats the purpose of it. And truely very fit it is, that some body in the generall name, should encourage your Exercise with an acknowledgement, how much your Countrey is beholding vnto you: what though you haue not for your Countries cause as yet resisted vnto bloud? nor in the open field done dutie against a foe? what though the fayre Armes that you put on, be for ornament rather, than for de­fence? [Page] yet is your Military skill and dex­terity at your Orders, Motions, Postures, and Handling of your Armes; as much (perchance) as many an old Leaguerers that hath. That our Age and Nation are so happy in a still and gentle peace; as neither doe we stand in need of your valours; nor haue you your selues any great use of your owne courages: blessed be the Lord of Hosts therefore, who hath not dealt so with any Nation. That here's no sword drawne in our Kingdome, but that of Iustice; and that of Honour some­times, which is gladly stooped vnto with a bended knee; we are to thanke our roy­all Soveraigne for, who is so studious of our quiet. And under the favour of the first sword; may wee all be ever happily protected: and to the gracious stroake of the second sword, I could wish with all my heart, that all your shoulders that deserve it, were submitted. Valour & cou­rage [Page] I assure my self you would all shew; should but your Country require your service: and did she so, you should be a­mong the first & the best men, that her safetie must rely vpon. That the King­dome hath by this means, the more that are enabled to defend it; is partly owing vnto your forwardnesse: and that there is a new Militia every yeare reered vp, and a continuall supply of a Military breede of Practitioners; is to be ascribed to your example. I know you much ho­nour that miracle of Souldiers, the King of Sweden: & by that time you haue read this; you will find more cause for it Here in the First part, shall you find him Re­ligious; in the Second, Iust: & in the Third, most Sufficien for an every way accom­plisht General: Devotion, Iustice, & a mar­tiall excellency, make vp his Discipline.

Farewell Gentlemen, and be pleased to accept of this, and of the good will and service, of the namelesse Author.

Ad Gustavum Adolphum, Regem Suecorum.

O Quem te memorem, clarorum maxime Regum?
Quaevè feram meritis nomina digna tuis?
Romulus auspiciis, forti probitate Camillus,
Pelides animis, consilio Pylias:
Impetu Alexander, praesenti pectore Caesar,
Scipio militiâ es, Hannibal ingenio.
Omnia seclorum superas miracula; quotquot
Graecia post genitis, Roma vel ipsa dedit.
Astraeam Marti solus, sanctum (que) feroci,
Concilias; ferrum legibus, arma togae.
Quod si grassantes pergis prohibere tyrannos,
Pressáq, servili solvere colla jugo:
Exemplo si parta novo sua cui (que) reponis,
Et, repetens raptum, nil rapis inde tibi:
Si populos, victor, trahis in tua jura volentes,
Et domitos, auctâ re (que) Fide (que), beas:
Teutonis assertis merces tibi Thracia cedat,
Lustratae Fidei Roma Minerval erit:
Nascentem indigitet, pugnanti militet aether,
Astra canant belli classica sacra tui:
Pressorum vindex, inopum Tutela, piorum
Angelus, ac reducis Signifer esto Dei.
At vos, O sontes gladium sperate Tiranni,
Quem socij vibrant, Christus, et hic Gedeon.

The Same in English

OH! whom may I thee style, most glorious King
Or to thy worth what names can worship bring▪
A Romulus in conduct may'st thou be,
Camillus in vnconquered honestie.
In courage thou art great Achilles peere,
In counsell Nestors, farre from Nestors yeere:
In th'on-set Alexander, one would deeme thee,
In constant valour, Caesar I esteeme thee.
In martiall skill a Scipio thou art,
An Hannibal in stratageme and art.
All Wonders thou exceed'st of elder age,
Which Greece, or Rome, hath left vpon times stage.
Mars with Astraea thou alone dost crowne,
Fury with Faith, Sword with Law, Armes with Gown.
If thus the ravening Tyrants thou represse,
And galled neckes from slavish yoke release:
If (justice strange!) thou part the rescued prey,
To each his owne, purloyning nought away:
Of foes if willing Subjects thou create,
By conquest bettered in their Faith and State;
Let Thracia be thy pay, for Almaine free'd,
For Faith restored Rome, shall be thy meed:
Let Heaven poynt at thy birth, serue in thy warres,
And blaze thy holy Armes with new-borne starres:
Be thou the oppressed's Shield, the poores reliefe,
The Saints good Angel, and Christ's Herauld chiefe,
Tremble yee guiltie Tyrants to come on,
Vpon the Sword of Christ and Gideon.
By Sa: Cr.

The first Part.

IT is not without a my­stery, I suppose, that the old Israelites had an Ar­mory in their Temple: they would shew us, That these two cannot well be parted. And truely, me-thinkes, that a Temple in an Ar­my, is none of the weakest peices of fortifi­cation. How prevalent an Orator, the pray­ers of devout warriours haue beene with the [Page 2] Lord of Hosts; the conquests and examples of the same old Israelites, may abundantly in­forme us. How often hath victory (and that almost visibly too, I am sure, sensibly) come ryding downe upon the triumphant wings of devout prayer?

The Tabernacle carried about by that most Christian Emperour Constantine, where ever his Campe went; and where, in stead of a Temple hee celebrated his daily devotions: conquered more, perchance, for him, than ten of his heathen Legions. If Moses prayes, whilest Iosuah fights,Exod. 17. Amalek must needes be dung downe. This our most pious Conque­rour now, that he might as neerly as might be, resemble that great Hebrew Generall, that first of the nine Worthies [...]nd that ever-glori­ous Constantine, that first of the Christian Em­perours; hath not courage enough (it seemes) to adventure himselfe into the field, till he first be impregnably fortified with this holy Spell, this whole armour of God.

Vpon the dayes of the Israelites March, when their Camp in the Wildernesse remo­ved, and the Arke of God with it; Moses had prayers then twice a day: at the Rising, name­ly, and at the Setting downe of the Arke againe,Num. 10. 35 [Page 3] had Israel a set forme of prayer. And that this religious King, might not seeme to fight the Lords Battells, without the Lords direction, he hath taken order to haue it call'd for, by most solemne and frequent prayers; twice aday used throughout his whole Leaguer. And that not onely when the Campe re­moues; but when it lyes still too: not onely before a battell, or a danger (as if he were at Sea) but even when no enemy is at hand; even then he prayes too. And not onely commands his Army twice a day; but himselfe, as I heare, uses to set apart many whole dayes, to his owne pious privacy, and his closest devotions: upon which may no man then speake to him, because he then speakes with God. Behold here are two swords; Fighting and Praying, and Praying & Figh­ting: thus hath the King of Sweden learn'd to conquer. It is none of the unpolitikest parts of his Majesties new Discipline, that I now present you with; which the exemplary pie­tie of that religious Prince, hath taught me to put in the first place of his Discipline; seeing in the following Articles of his civill Discipline, himselfe giues the first place unto those Articles, which concerne God and his service.

[Page 4] To crosse that Proverbiall Verse therefore which sayes that Souldiers haue neyther Faith nor Religion in them, I will here afford you some of those Formes of his daily prayer, frequented in every Quarter of his Leaguer, as I finde them in the Booke called Arma Suecica, Pag 77.

¶The Prayers.

In time of our Necessities, and for the Christian Church.

1 O Almightie and eternall Lord God, who delightest not in the death of a sinner, but wouldest rather that all should liue and come to the knowledge of the truth: we humbly intreate thee by thy Christ, thine onely Sonne, our Lord; that thou wouldest please to bestow thy grace upon all faithfull Doctors and Teachers; to the intent they may purely and clearely deli­ver thy Word: and that all such as eyther hate it, or with false doctrine corrupt it, or by force persecute it; thy teachers may be a­ble [Page 5] manfully to resist; and so enlighten them, that they may bring them to the knowledge of thy selfe. Grant, mercifull Father, thy Holy Spirit unto all Christian and lawfull Magistrates, that they may well and peacea­bly rule their own Subjects; and that under them we all leading a quiet and a blamelesse life; may with a true faith celebrate the ri­ches of thy grace; and with a constant mind in all holinesse and righteousnesse, as may be pleasing; serue thee the true God and Lord of Lords, thorough thy only beloved Sonne Iesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Another Prayer to the same purpose.

2 ALmightie and everlasting God, Creator of Heaven and Earth; we thy poore children, doe from the bottome of our hearts in the name of thy beloved Sonne Iesus Christ entreat thee: that by the power of thy Spirit thou wouldst be pleased to di­rect thine owne Christian Church, with all the true servants of it: that with constancy they may cleaue unto thy Word; so increa­sing in faith, hope, charitie, and patience un­to [Page 6] the end, that they may be saved. Vouch­safe thy divine grace also, unto all Christian Kings, Princes, and Governours; and espe­cially the King our Soveraigne Lord: and to all their Counsellours and chiefe Officers; that they may so rule their Subjects, thy peo­ple, well and according to thy good pleasure; as that peace, good dealing, and righteousnes, may be cherished; troubles, injustice, and all wickednesse, may be banished, and quite ta­ken out of the way.

Looke mercifully upon our enemies, and upon all those that persecute us: cause that both they and we, may seriously repent us of our sinnes: grant them and us and all the whole Christian world, such a minde to the loue of peace, that we may serue thee, O ho­ly God, in all pietie and honestie.

Comfort, moreover, all those that are af­flicted, poore, sicke, sorrowfull, distressed captiues, troubled in minde, those that suffer persecution or temptation; that they may beare the crosse patiently, and obtaine at last a happie issue out of all their troubles. Blesse the fruits of the earth also unto us, for the ne­cessary nourishment of our bodies; and pre­serve them from all danger and ill weather. [Page 7] And especially be thou present with us in this our expedition; pardon our sinnes, and mercifully turne away from us these punish­ments which we haue deserved.

Keepe safe, moreover, our Lord the King from all dangers both of soule and body; preserue all his Captaines & Commanders, higher and lower together with his whole Army, and our fellow-Souldiers. Grant us, O Lord our God, unanimous and sincere minds, wise direction, happie proceedings, and our desired end, in all our actions and endevours: So as may best make to the glo­ry of thy holy Name, the quietnesse, peace, comfort, joy, and happinesse, finally, both temporall and eternall; of our selues, Coun­trey, and all these afflicted Christians, which professe the Orthodox and true faith. Shew us some token for good,Psal. 86. 17. that they which hate us may see it and be ashamed: because thou Lord hast holpen us, and comforted us. These blessings that thou wouldest vouch­safe unto us, we thy poore children entreate thee humbly, by the death & passion of thy onely Sonne Iesus Christ, who liueth and reigneth with thee world without end. A­men.

Another Prayer to the same purpose.

3 OMnipotent and eternall God, Father of our Lord Iesus Christ, Creator and preserver of all things: most humbly we entreate thee, together with thy beloved Sonne and holy Spirit, that thou wouldest be pleased to be favourable unto us; even for the merits of thy Sonne Iesus Christ: whom in thy wonderfull counsell thou hast given us to be a Sacrifice for our sinnes, and whom thou hast appoynted to be our Advocate and Mediator; that by Him thou mightest expresse thy justly conceived anger against the sinnes of the world; and thy mercies to­wards us. Sanctifie Lord and guide us by thy Holy Spirit: gather, governe, and preserue thy Christian Church; giue us thy grace, that according unto what thou hast in thy holy Word prescribed us, we may liue holi­ly and unblamedly in this present world. Preserve our Lord the King,The Queene of Swedens name is Maria Eleonora; sister unto G [...]orge William, now Marquesse & Elector of Erandenburg. This young Lady their Daughter be­ing the onely childe of the King of Swe­den, now l [...]u­ing, is named Christina: who was by the States of Swe­den in the Parliament of Stockholme, An. 1627. recei­ved for their Queene, in case the King should dye without o­ther Issue. onr soveraigne Lady the Queene, their royall Daughter, and all the regall Family, unto the glory of thy Name, and the generall comfort and protec­tion of us all. Grant us a good government in the Common-wealth, and whatsoever els [Page 9] is necessary for our wel-being; Peace, name­ly, a happie government, with a good and an honest neighbourhood. Blesse, finally, our counsells & our enterprises: and that through Iesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reig­neth with thee and the holy Spirit, one God true and coequall. Amen.

Another Prayer to the same purpose.

4 MOst mercifull God, and heavenly Fa­ther: wee giue unto thee all thankes for those thy benefits, which untill this day thou out of thy Fatherly goodnesse hast bestowed upon us. And first of all, for that thou hast redeemed us by thy Sonne, and hast in thy Word revealed him unto us, in whom thou offerest remission of sinnes, righteousnesse, and everlasting life, unto all men, that with a penitent heart and true faith embrace it.

Preserue we beseech thee pure and uncor­rupt, thine owne holy Word & Sacraments, in these dangerous times, against all Pere­ticks and false Teachers. Especially against the Papists: who at this present with many [Page 10] bloudy slaughters, and inhumane tyranny, doe like ravening Wolues & roaring Lyons, undeservedly scatter and devoure thy poore Christian flocke. Looke downe O Lord upon the miserable condition of thy people, refraine the insolency of their enemies, hin­der thou their bloudy purposes, that so they may perceiue, that thou thy selfe fightest for thy holy Church; nor wilt giue it for a prey unto them.

Next, O Lord, pray we for all those De­puties of thine, to whom thou hast commit­ted the government of the Cōmon-wealth, and the sword of justice. For our own King first of all, whom thou in mercy hast set o­ver us, to be our head and protector: Pre­serue his Majestie from all perills, as well se­cret as open: grant prosperitie of successe un­to him: victory and deliverance against the enemies of his person and Kingdome. De­fend him, Lord, with the strength of thy right hand in this present and dangerous ex­pedition; which for the safetie of his owne Kingdome, and for the obteyning of a good Peace, he hath undertaken: and graunt that the Warres being brought unto a happie end, both himselfe and his whole Army, [Page 11] may safely returne againe into their owne Countries.

Nor lesse earnestly doe wee recommend unto thee our Soveraigne Lady the Queenes Majestie, with her royall Daughter: Blesse Lord both him and her, and keepe them both with thy Fatherly goodnesse and mer­cy. Wee recommend unto thee in like man­ner the Right Honourable the privie Coun­sellours and chiefe Magistrates of his King­dome: so governe and direct them all with thy Holy Spirit; that they may preferre thy glory before all; and with an honest and a good heart, study the prosperitie both of King and Kingdome. Pray we also for his Majesties Army, and Navy, and for all his Mettall mynes, and all things else, which may be beneficiall unto the Cōmon-wealth, and commodious unto the Subject. Turne a­way, for thy Christs sake, what ever may eyther destroy or endanger them: and giue a blessing unto any thing, that may any wayes advance the truth of our Religion, and our Country in generall. Looke favourably, O heavenly Father, upon all the Professors of the same true religion with us; who being sorely at this present oppressed by the Pa­pists, [Page 12] suffer the losse both of their liues and fortunes: Succour them, Lord, that they may bee delivered from these troubles. Keepe us in health from the noysome pesti­lence, from sudden and unhappie death; from dearth, famine, scar-fires, mutinyes, disagreements amongst our selues, and from hayle and tempest. Infuse into our hearts concord, faithfulnesse, and mutuall charitie. Comfort all those that are afflicted, sicke, in prison or calamitie. Succour and comfort all widowes and fatherlesse, women with childe, and that giue sucke. Be thou guide unto all those that travell eyther by land or by water: that they walking in thy right paths, and having prosperously dispatched their owne businesse, may safely returne at length unto their owne families. Deliver us, Lord God, from all evill: and when our fa­tall houre of death shall come, mercifully receiue us into thy Kingdome: translate our soules out of this vale of misery, into thy heavenly Paradise, where we may laud and prayse thee for it, world without end, A­men.


A Prayer for forgiuenesse of sinnes.

1 O Lord God, heavenly Father, who de­lightest not in the death of a sinner, nor wouldest that he should perish, but that he should be converted and liue: we humbly entreate of thee, mercifully to turne from us those punishments which our sinnes haue deserved: and that thou wouldst be pleased in plentifull manner to bestow thy mercy upon us, thorough Iesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Another Prayer to the same purpose.

2 O Wel-beloved Lord Iesus Christ, haue mercy upon us miserable sinners, and looke with the eyes of compas­sion upon us, as thou sometimes diddest upō Mary Magdalene, that penitent sinner, when lying at thy feete, shee from the bottome of her heart sincerely bewayled her owne transgressions: and the Publican in the Tem­ple when he smote upon his breast, and im­plored thy favour: and the Theefe upon the [Page 14] Crosse when he entreated and obteyned thy pardon. Lord grant us to receiue the same this day from thee: absolue thou us in Hea­ven, forgiue us our sinnes, O God, thou au­thor of all comfort. Cast us not away from thy presence; but cause us so to walke in thy feare, that in faith and loue wee may serue and please thee, thorough Iesus Christ our Lord. Amen.


For Peace and Concord.

1 GIue peace, in our time, O Lord: because there is no other that fighteth for us, but onely thou O God. Giue peace unto our King, and all other Princes: direct them rightly to govern the Cōmon-wealth: and grant that under them wee may liue a quiet and a peaceable life, in all pietie and honestie. Amen.


2 O Lord God heavenly Father, from whom all courage of minde, good counsaylt, and just workes doe pro­ceede; giue unto thy servants that peace which the world cannot giue: that both our hearts may depend vpon thy Comman­dements; and also that being safe under thy protection, wee may passe our time in rest and quietnesse, thorough Iesus Christ our Lord. Amen.


3 O Almightie and eternall God, King of glory and Lord of Heaven and Earth; by whose Spirit all things are gover­ned, and by whose becke and providence all things are directed: thou onely art the God of peace, from whom all peace and concord doe proceede: wee humbly beseech thee to forgiue us our sinnes, and to giue us thy ho­ly peace and true concord: that in thy feare we may serue thee, and for ever laud & praise [Page 16] thee: who together with the Sonne and Ho­ly Ghost livest and reignest one true and e­ternall God. Amen.


For the King.

1 ALmightie God, heavenly Father, for Ie­sus Christ thy beloved Sonne we be­seech thee, favourably to looke downe upon our King: guide him with thy holy Spirit: keepe him with a guard of thine An­gels, against all dangers both of soule and body: keepe him safely from all misfortunes: so bring it to passe, that by the expedition which he now makes, we may be delivered from our enemies; and that by his safe re­turne, we being made joyfull; may from thenceforth laud, honour, and prayse thee, world without end. Amen.


2 THe King shall rejoyce in thy strength, O Lord:Psal. 21. exceeding glad shall he be of thy salvation. Thou hast given him [Page 17] his hearts desire [...] and not denyed him the re­quest of his lippes▪ For thou hast filled him with the best of thy blessings; and hast set a Crowne of pure gold upon his head▪ He as­ked life of thee, and thou gavest him a long life, even for ever and ever▪ His honour is great in thy salvation glory and great wor­ship hast thou laid upon him. For thou hast filled him with all kind o [...] blessings for ever; and thou shale make him glad with the joy of thy countenance.Psal. 20. 1. Heare him Lord in the time of trouble, let thy Name set him in a safe place. Send him helpe from the Sanctu­ary, and strengthen him out of [...] Remem­ber also all his offerings; and accept his burnt Sacrifice. Grant him his hearts desire, and fulfill all his mind, Helpe Lord thine [...]noin­ted, and heare him from thy Sanctuary, through Iesus Christ▪ Amen.


3 GRant peace, O God, unto our King and all his Officers, well to governe the Common-wealth: that vnder them we may lead a Christian, a quiet, and a peace­able [Page 18] life, in all devotion, and in honestie, A­men.


4 O Eternall and mercifull God, heaven­ly Father, that hast the hearts of all Kings in thy hands, and bowest them which way thou pleasest; so bring it to passe that by this troublesome warre, the meanes of making a good agreement, and of esta­blishing a sure peace, may be found out: all heart-burning, offences, and dissention removed. Thou from whom all helpe in earth commeth, helpe us; that so we may liue peaceably▪ and quietly in all devotion and honestie. We haue, to confesse the truth, plucked downe all thy plagues, vpon our selues, by our sinfulnesse, faultinesse, and trans­gressions. But rebuke vs not in thine anger, neyther chasten vs in thy heavie displeasure. Correct vs, to amend vs, but not vtterly to de­stroy vs. Enlighten our eyes, that we sleepe not in death. Returne at length, and be gra­cious vnto vs: satisfie vs with thy goodnesse, that we may rejoyce & be glad all the dayes [Page 19] of our life▪ Comfort vs according to the time thou hast afflicted vs; and the yeares wherein we haue suffered adversitie. Re­member not our former iniquities. Haue mercy vpon vs, and that soone; for wee are brought very low. Helpe vs, O God our helper, for the honour of thy Name▪ Deliver vs and forgiue vs our sinnes, for thy Names sake; because thou art the Lord, the highest aboue all the world: thou art long-suffering, of great goodnesse, and gratious: nor art thou prone vnto anger and to vengeance; seeing to those that repent, thou hast promised re­mission of all their sinnes. So shall we thy people, and the sheepe of thy pasture, giue thee thankes for ever, and will speake of thy praise from generation to generation. Amen.


Against all evill.

1 O Lord God, heavenly Father, that de­spisest not the sighing of the misera­ble, nor the desire of such as be afflic­ted; mercifully heare our prayers which we [Page 20] make before thee in these our necessities: and grant that those evills which the Devill or man worketh against vs, be brought to nought, and that by the providence of thy goodnesse, they may be dispersed: that we being hurt by no persecution, may giue thee thankes in thy holy Church, and prayse thee evermore for the same, thorough Iesus Christ thy Sonne our Lord. Amen.

Another Prayer.

2 O Lord God heavenly Father, who well knowest, that by reason of our hu­mane frailtie we are not able of our selues to subsist in so many dangers: graunt such strength vnto vs both of soule and bo­dy, that whatsoever doth vexe or trouble vs by reason of our sinnes, wee may by thine assistance be able to overcome, through Ie­sus Christ our Lord. Amen.


3 ALmightie and eternall God, which out of thine own meere mercy hast called vs miserable sinners vnto the know­ledge of thy selfe in Iesus Christ; we from the bottome of our hearts entreate thee, to governe vs by thy Holy Spirit, and to guard vs by thy holy Angels; that neyther the De­vill, or naughtie people, no nor the wicked­nesse of our own sinfull flesh, may thrust vs headlong into securitie, or to the leading of a wicked life, to the offence of our brethren: but that being by thee delivered out of all their snares, we may haue thee alwayes be­fore our eyes, loue thee aboue all, and our neighbour as our selues: profiting thereby in faith, charitie, hope, and patience; vntill the comming of our blessed Saviour Iesus Christ, to deliver vs out of all these evils, with which we haue a daily conflict here in this world; and to translate vs vnto joyes celestiall: To whom with thee and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory world without end. Amen.


Against our enemies.

O Lord Iesus Christ, Sonne of the living God; thou onely art the true Souldier and Captaine, the Lord mightie in Battell: Behold, thine enemies rage mighti­ly, and those that hate thee rise vp against vs: they take subtle counsell together against thy people, and lay their heads together against thy secret ones. Goe too, say they, let vs cut thē off that they be no more a people, & that the name of Israel may be blotted out. For we put not our trust in our owne strength; for we know, that there is no King that can be saved by the multitude of an Host;Psal. 33. 15. ney­ther is any mightie man delivered by much strength. An horse is counted but a vaine thing to saue a man; neyther shall be deliver any man by his great strength: but our trust is in thee, that art our refuge, and a Tower of defence against our enemies. Thou being our Captaine,Psal. 18. 29. we shall discomfit an Host of men; and with the helpe of our God, wee shall leape over the wall. Thou being our ayde, we shall doe famous exployts; thou [Page 23] art able to beate our enemies to dust: they compasse vs about; but in thy name we will destroy them: they come about vs like Bees, & smoake against vs like fire among thornes; but in thy Name wee will destroy them. Thou overthrewest Pharaoh and his Host in the red Sea; thou constreynedst Senacherib to turne againe into his owne Country: thou overthrewest proud Haman; and threwest owne the haughtie Holofernes. So Lord deale with our enemies: doe vnto them as thou diddest vnto the Madianites, and as vnto Sisera and Iabin at the brooke Kison. Make their Princes like Oreb and Zeb; and their Leaders like vnto Zeba and Salmana. Let the mischiefe which they prepare for others, fall vpon their owne heads; and their wickednesse vpon their owne pates. So shall wee sing of thy power, and prayse thy goodnesse betimes in the morning▪ For thou God art our Protec­tor, & our refuge in all our necessities. Amen.

A Prayer of King Asa, 2 Chron. 14. 11 &c.

AS A cryed vnto the Lord his God, and said; Lord, it is nothing with thee, to helpe, whether with many, or with [Page 24] them that haue no power. Helpe vs O Lord our God, for we rest on thee, and in thy name w [...] goe against this multitude. O Lord thou art our God, let not man prevaile a­gainst vs.

A Prayer of Iudas Macchabaeus vnto his Souldiers, 1 Macchab 4. 8▪

THen sayd Iudas to the men that were with him, Feare yee not their multi­tude, neyther be yee afraid of their as­sault. Remember how our Fathers were de­livered in the red Sea, when Pharaoh pursued them with an Army. Now therefore let vs cry vnto Heaven, if peradventure the Lord will haue mercy vpon vs, and remember the Covenant of our Fathers, and destro [...] this Host before our face this day▪ That so all the Heathen may know, that there is one, who delivereth and saveth Israel.

A Prayer of Luther for Souldiers, found in the 3. Tome of the Edition at Iena, fol. 330.

HEavenly Father, here am I by thy di­vine will in this externall calling, un­der the Command of my Generall, first to serue thee, as is fitting; and then for thee to obey my Captaine I giue due thanks unto thy goodnesse and mercy, that thou hast called me unto this condition, and set me about that worke, which I assuredly know to be no sinne, but a right action, and a service acceptable unto thy will. And for that I haue learned out of thy saving Word, that our owne good workes doe not profit us for the meriting of salvation; and that no man is saved for that he is a Souldier, but for that he is a Christian; I will not therefore put my confidence in this worke and service of mine: but what ever I doe, I will doe it with a good will, as to doe thee a service: and I out of the bottom of my heart beleeue, that I am redeemed and saved, onely by the innocent bloud of thy beloved Sonne, my Lord Iesus Christ, which according to thy will, he shed for me vpon the Altar of the [Page 26] Crosse. In this beliefe I resolue to stand, in this will I liue and dye; for this doe I now fight and take paines: O Lord God, heaven­ly Father, preserue and encrease this faith in me, through thy Holy Spirit. Amen.

Against the Plague, and other noysome Diseases.

A Almightie God, Lord and Father of all grace and consolation, haue mercy vp­on vs, and vpon thy Christian people. Consume vs not in thy fury by this contagi­ous pestilence: but as in the time of David thou commaundedst the destroying Angell to hold his hand, and giue over killing: so cause, O most gracious Lord, this terrible rod of thine anger to cease from vs, and not to destroy thine afflicted people. Strengthen vs with the wholsome power of thy Word, that we may be healthy both in soule & bo­dy; that we may laud & prayse thee here on earth for a time, and for ever in the Heavens. O Lord Iesus Christ, succour vs in this sickly time, for those bitter paines that for our sakes thou sometimes enduredst: make in­tercession [Page 27] for vs with thy heavenly Father: defend vs against the heavie wrath of God; forgiue vs our trespasses; giue thine inno­cency vnto vs. Call to minde in this grievous plague-time, how much our Redemption cost thee, and suffer not that thy bloud-shed for vs, to be lost, or become in vaine. O Ho­ly Ghost, vouchsafe thou to descend sweet­ly into our languishing hearts▪ refresh thou and recreate our soules. And if it so fall out that this plague strike vs also, then take thou the cure of our soules in that houre, in which we must depart out of this life: lay vs in the most sweete bosome of Christ our Redee­mer, that we may be there partakers of eter­nall joy and quietnesse. Fulfill all thy most sweete promises in us, which are in thy Word made unto vs. Take from us all un­beliefe, doubting, and impatience: make us ever readie to obey the will of God, even thou, who with the Father and the Sonne, livest one God world without end. Amen.

Of forgiuenesse of Sinnes: and of the Lords Supper.

O Good Lord Iesus Christ: I am no way able eyther in words or thought, suf­ficiently to make expression of thy great loue, which thou hast declared towards me, at such time as thou receivedst me mise­rable sinner into grace, and hast made me to eate and drinke of thy true body and bloud, vnto euerlasting life. Accept in the meane time this sacrifice of Thankesgiving of my heart and mouth, which in this mortall bo­die I am able to pay unto thee; untill I come home unto thee, where I shall for ever praise thee. Giue thy Holy Spirit unto me, who may teach me to know how much good thou hast alreadie wrought in me: that so in faith, charitie, hope, & patience, I may begin to leade a new life; vnto thy prayse, mine owne amendment, and the good of my neighbour. Grant this for the merit of thy precious bloud, and the redemption which thou thereby hast made. Amen.

[Page 29] And these be some of those devout prayers, with which this most pious Prince teaches his Army, to call vpon the Lord of Hosts and Victory. Now vnto these good prayers, let all religious Readers that wish well vnto this King; adde this or the like, for a close vnto the rest. The Lord heare thee in the time of trouble, and the name of the God of Iacob defend thee; be vnto thee a Shield, and Buckler, against thine enemies: arme thee with the sword of Gideon: and the Lord of Hosts goe forth with thine Armies: that the Victories which God shall giue thee, may bring freedome and justice vnto the inno­cent and oppressed, inlargement to Religion, liberty to Germany: and the benefits of a sweet and a lasting peace vnto all Christendome. This grant vs for the Prince of Peace his sake, Iesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

ANd now that you may know that the King of Sweden doth not onely enjoyne others to pray, but that in his owne person he practises these devotions by him­selfe; I will here subjoyne you two severall prayers, conceived, no doubt, in his own [...] [Page 30] more private and premeditated considerati­on; and uttered in publicke, and extempore, as it seemed. The first was at his Majesties first landing upon the coasts of Germanie; where so soone as ever he out of his long boate set his foote upon the dry Land, he thus by prayer and thankesgiving, in Gods Name tooke possession of the Countrey; himselfe whilest his men were landing, step­ping a little aside, and before them all, upon his knees, uttering these words of devotion. O most great God, that commaundest what ever thou pleasest both in heaven, and earth, and in the surging Seas: what thankfulnesse am I now bound to render unto thee, for that thou hast preserved me thus safely, in all this so perilous a voyage? Againe and a­gaine doe I from the very bottome of my heart and soule, giue thankes unto thee: and here I humbly beseech thee, that seeing, as thou very well knowest, I haue not un­dertaken this expedition for any private end of mine owne, but onely for thine honours sake; and to be some comfort and assistance unto thine afflicted Church: so (if so be the time which thy selfe hast appoynted, be al­readie come) thou wouldst now be pleased [Page 31] to favour and blesse me hereafter also: and that, especially, thou wouldst send me a fayre winde and a prosperous; that the Army yet left behinde, which out of so ma­ny people and Nations I haue gathered toge­ther; I may with joyfull eyes shortly here behold, and with a happie beginning pro­mote with them the glory of thy holy name. Amen.

When his Counsellors and Commanders then next his person, saw their devout King thus on the bare ground upon his knees; and heard with what a fervencie of spirit he uttered these devotions; an inward comfort and an holy joy they tooke at it, wrought more with them than their enemies could yet ever doe; that is, even forced, and pressed teares out of their manly eyes. This his pi­ous Majestie then perceiving, Forbeare to weepe, sayes he to them, but heartily con­joyne your prayers with me: for the greater the army of prayers is, the greater and more assured shall the victory be. He that prayes diligently, hath in part overthrowne the e­nemy already, and already gotten the victo­ry. Thus having sayd, he out of two hundred long boates lands his men, then on the [Page 32] shoares side, and then sends them to his shippes to fetch more: and God so heard him, and the winde so favoured him; that according to his former prayers, his whole Army very shortly, and very safely arri­ved.

I will not here compare this prayer of this pious and victorious Prince, vnto that of the great Iosuah; at whose request the Sunne stood still, as the winde here did at his: but that you may see that God did indeed heare the prayers of this King too; I will now giue you a more eminent example of it. The Papists, had one of theirs done it, would un­doubtedly haue cryed out, A miracle: and well they might: for few such they haue, but I will onely thinke of it, as of a present and a visible blessing sent from that great God, to whom the windes and the Seas o­beyed. And thus it was.

The King a little after this, having a de­signe upon Stetin; and his Army now readie upon the shoare, and his boats readie upon the River to imbarke them; the winde, be­hold, was contrary, and so had beene for some dayes before. This the King obser­ving, turning a little aside, he before his Ar­my [Page 33] with bended knees, and hands lift up to Heaven, uttered these words.

O thou most just God! full well thou knowest, that this enterprise I did not at first undertake, out of any rashnesse, or am­bition, but for the glory of thy most holy Name, and the defence of the truth of thy Word: here, therefore, now call I vpon thy Godhead, and most humbly doe I beseech thee; that with the ayre of thy favour, and with a prosperous winde, thou wouldst vouchsafe to breath vpon this my vnderta­king. Amen.

No sooner was this prayer ended, but the winde suddenly, as a man might say, chopt about, and swel'd the Swedish sayles with so hard a gale, that the whole Fleete passing the Swing, or arme of the Oder, was in two houres space runne full sixe Germane myles (twentie of ours perchance if not more) and all on the sudden, when they were little looked for, came to an Anchor within an English myle of Stetin, to the great admira­tion of the beholders, and the greater de­feate [Page 34] of the hopes and purposes of the Im­perialists; who had a designe within two dayes after, to haue layd siege to the same Towne, had not God thus miraculously prevented them.

And thus much, though I now giue you, out of a Latine Copie; yet, to confesse the truth, did I in the writing of my former Booke, finde mentioned in one of the week­ly Currantoes: how that the Kings Fleete was by a strong and a sudden Northerly winde, strangely advanced through the Oder, even to the very walles of the Citie. But this I durst not then write, vpon the bare credite of a common Curranto; nor durst I with this winde (though a strong one it were) ad­venture to stemme the tyde of popular opi­nion; which I found not onely to runne a­gainst, but (to vse the language of the Sea) with a stiffe currant strongly to be set against the credite of these weekly Currantoes. Which warinesse of mine, made me indeed to leaue out many notable particulars, which I since finde reported, in the Booke called Ar [...] Sue­cica.

God Almightie, that hath so graciously [Page 35] both heard and granted, these two prayers of this pious King; heare all the rest also: both those that himselfe makes, and what other good Christians make likewise for him. And those Englishmen that will not, I wish they would say Amen vnto it.


THE SECOND PART of the Swedish Discipline: Containing those Orders, and Articles of Warre, which haue beene commanded by the King of Sweden, to be vnder their severall Penalties obserued in his Majesties Camp, Garrisons, or elsewhere.

GVSTAVUS ADOLPHVS By the Grace of God King of the Swedens Gothes and Vandals, Great Prince of Finland Duke of Esthonia and Carelia, and Lord of Ingria, &c. Whereas the ex­actnesse of Auncient Di [...]cipline and Iustice is now almost vtterly forgotten: and in place thereof many strange and enor­mous abuses, crept in amongst our soldiers: Wee there­fore taking the matter into our tender care and conside­ration; will by the assistance of Almighty God ende­vour to doe our vttermost, both for the reducing of the said forme of Discipline, and the rooting out the same a­buses, [Page 40] vsing to that purpose the way of gentlenesse and admonition vnto some; and resoluing to take the course and strictnesse of Iustice vnto others That therefore our soldiers may the better be trained vp to the right vse and handling of their Armes, so as may best enable them for our service and defence of our natiue Country: and that euery man in like manner, may the better es­chew what may fall out to be inconuenient: Wee haue once againe overseene our former Articles of warres, calling our from thence these following Articles; which wee haue thought most fit and expedient, both for our service and their ordering. Streightly willing or com­manding [...]ll our soldiers, both natiues of our Kingdome aswell as Strangers, seruing both on Horse and Foote; that from the time of their comming into our service, they doe duely and obediently obserue these following Articles: vnto which, if any vpon presumption doe the contrary, he shall be Punished as here after followeth.


SEing therefore that all our wellfare and prosperity, pro­ceedeth from Almighty God; and that it is all mens duty to feare and serue him aboue all: Wee streightly hereby charge all manner of Persons whatsoeuer, that they by no meaues vse any kind of Idolatry, Witch-craft, or Enchanting of Armes, by Devils inchantment any manner of way whatsoe­uer. And if any herein be found faulty he shall be proceeded against according to Gods law and the Swedens: And so much as the law in that case enjoyneth, shalbe put in execution a­gainst them. And it is further provided, that such manner of Malefactors shall by no meanes be suffered to come in Compa­ny with any soldiers whatsoeuer.


If any shall blaspheme the name of God, either drunke or [Page 14] sober; and the thing be by 2. or 3. witnesses proued against him, he shall be put to death without all mercy.


If any shall presume to deride or scorne Gods word or Sacraments, and be taken in the fault; they shall forthwith be convented before the Consistory or Commission Ecclesiasticall, to be in presence of the Commissioners examined: by whom if he be found guilty and condemned; he shall lose his head with­out all mercy. But if the words by him so vttered, were spo­ken out of hast or vnadvisednesse; he shall for the first offence be put in Irons for 14. dayes: And giue vnto the next hospi­tall one halfe Months pay. After which if he presume againe, he shalbe shot to death.


He who in his anger shall sweare by the name of God, and be taken therewith; whither it were done in hastinesse or not, or otherwise in the executing of his office: he shall for­feit halfe a Months pay vnto the poore. In like manner, if a­ny be in time of Prayers found drinking, or at any other evill exercise, the shall giue one halfe months pay vnto the next Hospitall, and at the next Preaching or Prayers that is, he shall be brought vpon his knees in the midst of all the Congregati­on, there to craue pardon of Almighty God; and so continue the whole time of Diuine service and Sermon. This shall the Minister see executed.


And to the end that Gods word be by no meanes neglected, our will is, that publick Prayers be euery day said both mor­ning and Euening throughout our whole leaguer. For which purpose, shall some token or warning be giuen by our Gene­rall; and in his absence by our Marshall of the Field, or other chiefe officer. Which token or warning, shall be made by sound of trumpet, playing the tune of some Psalme: vnto which the other trumpettors shall likewise answer in the tune of a Psalme: and so shall the Drummers of euery Regiment. Then shall euery Priest or Minister in our Army say Publick Prayers in his owne Quarter.


Whatsoeuer Minister shall neglect his time of Prayer (ex­cept by sicknesse or other lawfull occasion he be hindred) he shall for euery absence forfeit one halfe moneths pay vnto the next Hospitall.


Whatsoeuer soldiour shall neglect the time of Prayers, & is therefore once, twice, or thrice admonished by his Cap­taine, he shall lye in prison▪ 24. houres: except he had a law­ful occasion to be absent.


If any Minister shalbe found drunken at such time as he should preach or re [...]de Prayers; he shall for the second offence be grauely advised by [...] Consistory or Commission to forsake his sinne; but if he be found drunken the third time, he shal­be put out of the Leaguer.


Every Holyday, or euery Sunday at least, shalbe kept so­lemne with Preaching; to be holden in the fittest place for such a purpose. This also to be done twice every weeke if the time will permit. If there be any Holydayes to come in the following weeke; the Minister shall after such Sermon or Prayers publickly bid them. Who so shall neglect the time appoynted, vnlesse he haue some lawfull let or occasion; shalbe punished as aforesaid.


All Merchants and Sellers of Commodities whatsoeuer: so soone as they heare the token or call to be giuen shall immedi­ately shut vp their doores, and so keepe them during the said time of Prayers and of Sermon. They that presume in that season to sell any thing; shall make forfeit of all things so sold: whereof the one halfe to goe to the Generall, and the other halfe to the next Hospitall. Over and aboue which, the offen­der shall for one whole day be put into prison.


All drinkings and feastings shall in the time of Prayers be giuen ouer, vpon paine of punishment as is before mentioned [Page 43] in the 17. Article. If any soldier herein offend, he shall for­feite 3. Rusticks to the poore: and if he be an officer, he shall forfeite what shalbe awarded.


For the explaining of this former Article: if there be none to complaine of these abuses, then shall the Minister himselfe giue notice thereof vnto the Colonell or Captaine: and if he shall suffer such abuses to goe vnpunished, then shall he giue the Generall notice thereof, who shall doe him right.


All Priests and Ministers that are to be in our Camp or Lea­guer, shalbe appointed by the Bishop of the same Diocesse or Land from whence the Soldiers come, whom he is to be a­mong. No Colonell nor Captaine shall take what Minister he shall think good, but shalbe content with whom the Bishop shall appoint him.


To the intent that all Church businesse, as well in the Field as otherwhere, may haue an orderly proceeding; wee ordaine, that there be one Ecclesiasticall Consistory or Commissi­on in our Leaguer. The President or chiefe person where­of shalbe our owne Minister when wee our selues, are perso­nally present in the field. In our absence, shall the chiefe Minister to our Generall, be the man. His fellow Commissio­ners or ordinary Assessors, shalbe the chiefe Ministers to every Regiment of Horse and Foote: vnto whom wee giue full po­wer and authority, to be Iudges in all Church affaires: accor­ding to the Law of God and the Holy Church. What shalbe by them decreed, shalbe of as great force and strength, as if it were determined in any other Consistory whatsoeuer.


No Captaine shall haue liberty to take in any Minister: without the consent of his Colonell, and of the Consistory: neither shall he againe discharge any, but by permission of the Consistory; he hauing there first shewed. that Minister [Page 44] not to be worthy of his charge.


If any Minister be found ill enclined vnto Drunkennesse or otherwise; then may his Colonell or Captaine of Horse or Foote, complaine of him in the Consistory: and if his fellow-Ministers find him guilty; then may they discharge him of his place. In such complaints, shall the whole Consistory and the President, severely also reprehend him; that others of the same calling may thereby take example, be warned of such grosse errors, and giue good example vnto others.


And now, in like manner, as all our soldiers haue made Oath to be vnto vs true and obedient: so also shall they obserue this following Article, hold vp their hands, aud sweare as fol­loweth.

The Oath of all Vnder-Officers of Horse or Foote.

I. N. N. Doe here promise and sweare, that vnto the High and mighty King Gustavus, as also vnto the Crowne of Sweden, I will be a true and a faithfull seruant and soldioru: every manner of way performing my best endeavour for his Maiesties seruice, and the profit of his Kingdome. To my power also shall I hinder all actions preiudiciall vnto his Crowne: and if I haue tidings of any thing likely to be pre­iudiciall, I shall giue his Maiesty present notice thereof; or some one or other of his Councell. Moreover I will doe my best endevour to obserue all these his Maiesties Articles of warres. Also, I shall behaue my selfe manfully in battle, skir­mishes, and entryes of breaches, aswell by Water as by Land, in all times and places, when and where I shall be comman­ded. [Page 45] I shall also keepe watch and ward, and doe all other duties willingly, vnto the best profit of his Maiesty and his King­dome; wheresoeuer I shall be commanded, either by Land, or Water. Also, I shall beare my selfe obediently towards my superiour Officers, in all that they command me for his Ma­iesties seruice. In like manner, as I shall answer it before God and euery honest man, I shall not fly from my Colours or To­ken whatsoeuer, that I am commanded to follow; so long as I am able to goe after them: and I shall be willing to doe this at all times; and by no mea [...] absent my selfe from them at any time. I shall lay downe my [...] [...]nd goods for the advan­cing of his Maiesties seruice, [...] all miseries that can possibly fall out in the warres: [...] [...]fully to the very last; so farre forth as I am able, or that any true soldiour ought to doe. Furthermore, if hereafter I be put into any place of charged by his Maiesty; I shall doe my best endeuour fairely to discharg my duty therein: so as I ought to doe according to my place. This Oath shall I well and truely keepe, as the Lord of Heaven and Earth shall helpe my soule at the last Iudgement.


All at this time present, or hereafter to come into our ser­uice, shalbe bound to keepe these following Articles: aswell in the Field, as in any Fort or Worke whatsoeuer, where they shalbe commanded.


For that no Gouerment can stand firmely, vnlesse it be first rightly grounded; and that the lawes be rightly obserued: Wee the King of Sweden doe hereby make knowne vnto all our soldiours and subiects, noble and others; that in our pre­sence they presume not to doe any vnseemely thing: but that euery one giue Vs our due honor, as wee ought to receiue. Who presumes to doe the contrary, shalbe punished at our pleasure.


Next, shall our Officers and soldiers be obedient vnto our Generall and Feild-Marshal, with other our Officers next vnder them, in whatsoeuer they shall command, belonging vnto our seruice: Vpon paine of punishment as followeth.


Whosoeuer behaues not himselfe obediently vnto our great Generall or our Ambassador commanding in our abse [...]ce, as well as if wee our selues were there in person present; shalbe kept in Irons or in prison, vntill such time as he shalbe b [...]ought to his answer before a Councell of warre: where being found guilty; whether it were wilfully done, or not; he shall stand to the Order of the Court, to lay what punishment vpon him they shall thinke convenient, according as the person and fact is.


And if any shall offer to discredit these great office [...]s by word of mouth or otherwise and not be able by prooses to make it good, he shalbe put to death without mercy.


Whosoeuer offers to lift vp any manner of Armes against them, whether he does them hurt or not, shalbe punisht by death.


If any offers to strike them with his hand, whether he hit or misse, he shall loose his right hand.


If it so falls out, that our great Generall in any Feast, drink­ing, or otherwise, does offer iniury to any Knight, Gentle­man or other, which stands not with their honour to put vp: then may they complaine to the Commissioners for the Coun­cell of Warre; where he shall answer them, and be censured by them, according to the quality and importancy of the fact.


As it is here spoken of our Generall; so also is it of all other our great officers; as Field-Marshall, Generall of the Ordnance, Generall of the Horse, Sergeant Major Generall, Quarter-Master Generall, and Muster Maister: all which, if they com­mit [Page 47] any such offence, through Enuie or other by-respect; they shall answer it before the Court of Warre, as is before menti­oned.


As euery officer and soldiour, ought to be obedient vnto our Generall and other Great officers; so shall they in the vnder-Regiments be vnto their Colonell Leiftenant-Colonell, Sergeant Major, and Quartermaister: vpon paine of the said punishment aforementioned.


If any soldiour or, officers seruing either on Foote or on Horsebacke, shall offer any wrong or abuse vnto his superiour officer, either by word or deed; or shall refuse any duty com­manded him, tending vnto our seruice: he shalbe punisht ac­cording to the importancy of the fact.


If any Colonell, Leiftenant-Colonell, Sergeant Major, or Quarter Maister, shall command any thing not belonging vnto our seruice; he shall answer to the complaint before the Court.


In like manner, if any Inferiour officer, either of Horse or Foote, shall for their owne particular end, command any thing that is not right: they shall answer the complaint as is afore­said.


If any Inferiour officer either of Horse or Foote, does chal­lenge anyōmon soldiour to be guilt [...]y of any dishonest action; the soldiour finding himselfe guiltlesse, may lawfully call the said officer to make proofe of his words before the Court, as his equall.


If any soldiour either of Horse or Foote,, shall offer to strike his officer, that shall command him any duty for our seruice; he shall first loose his hand, and be then turned out of the Quarter. And if it be done in any Fort or beleaguered place, after the watch is set, he shall loose his life for it.


And if he does hurt to any of them, whither it be in the field, or not, he shall be shot to death.


If any such thing fall out within the compasse of the Lea­guer or the place of Garrison, in any of the soldiours lodgings where many of them meete together; the matter shalbe en­quired into by the officers of the Regiment; that the begin­ner of the fray may be punisht according to desert.


He, who in the presence of our Generall shall draw his sword, with purpose to doe mischiefe with it; shall lose his hand for it.


He who shall in anger draw his sword while his Colours are flying, either in battell, or vpon the march; shalbe shot to death. If it be done in any strength or fortified place, he shall lose his hand, and be turned out of the quarter.


He who shall once presume to draw his sword vpon the place where any Court of Iustice is holden, while it is holden▪ shall lose his life for it.


He that drawes his sword in any strength or Fort, to doe mischiefe therewith, after the watch is set, shall lose his life for it.


No man shall hinder the Provost Marshall Generall, his Lieftenant or seruants, when they are to execute any thing that is for our seruice: who does the contrary shall lose his life for it.


Leaue is giuen vnto the Provost Marshall Generall to ap­prehend all whatsoeuer that offends against these our Articles of warre. All other offenders he may likewise apprehend, by his owne Authority.


If the Provost Marshall Generall shall apprehend any [Page 49] man by his owne Authority; he may keepe him either in pri­son or in Irons: but by no meanes doe execution vpon him after the Court of warre is ended, without first giuing the Ge­nerall notice thereof.


The Provost Marshals of euery Regiment, haue also the same priviledge vnder their owne Regiment & Company that the Provost Marshall Generall hath in the Leaguer.


Euery Sergeant Major commanding in the whole Leaguer what appertaineth to his office; shalbe obeyed by euery man with his best endeavour.


Whatsoeuer is to be published or generally made knowne, shalbe proclaimed by sound of Drumme and trumpet; that no man may pretend ignorance in it: they who after that shall be found disobedient, shalbe punished according to the qua­lity of the fact.


No soldiour shall think himselfe too good to worke vpon any peice of Fortification, or other place, where they shalbe commanded for our service; vpon paine of punishment


Whosoeuer shall doe his Maiesties businesse slightly or la­zily; shall first ride the wooden Horse, and lye in prison after that with Bread and Water: according as the fact shalbe ad­judged more or lesse heynous.


All Officers shall diligently see that the soldiers ply their worke, when they are commanded so to doe: he that neglects his duty therein, shalbe punished according to the discretion of the Court.


All soldiours ought duely to honor and obey their Officers; and especially, being by them commanded vpon our seruice: but if at any time they can on the contrary discouer, that they are commanded vpon a seruice which is to our prejudice any [Page 50] manner of way: then shall that soldiour not obey him, what charge soeuer he receiues from him: but presently giue notice of it.


No Colonell nor Captaine shall command his soldiours to doe any vnlawfull thing: which who so does, shalbe punisht according to the discretion of the Iudges. Also, if any Colo­nell or Captaine, or other Officer whatsoeuer, shall by rigor take any thing away from any common soldiour, hee shall an­swer for it before the Court.


No man shall goe any other way in any Leaguer whatso­euer, but the same common way laid out for euery man, vpon paine of punishment.


No man shall presume to make any Alarme in the Quarter, or to shoot off his Musket in the night time, vpon paine of Death.


He that when warning is giuen for the setting of the watch by sound of Drumme, Fife, or Trumpet, shall wilfully ab­sent himselfe without some lawfull excuse; shall be punisht with the woodden Horse, and be put to Bread and Water, or other pennance, as the matter is of importance.


He that is taken sleeper vpon the watch, either in any strength, Trench, or the like; shall be shot to Death.


He that comes off his watch where he is commanded to keepe his Guard; or drinkes himselfe drunke vpon his watch, or place of Sentinell, shalbe shot to Death.


He that at the sound of Drumme or Trumpet, repaires not to his Colours; shalbe clapt in Irons.


When any march is to be made, euery man that is sworne shall follow his Colours: who euer presumes without leaue to stay behind, shall bee punisht.


And if it be vpon mutiny that they doe it, be they many, or be they few; they shall die for it.


Who euer runnes from his Colours, be hee native or forrei­ner; and does not defend them to the vttermost of his power, so long as they be in danger, shall suffer death for it.


Euery man is to keepe his owne ranke and flie vpon the march, and not to put othres from their order, nor shall any Man cast himselfe behind or set himselfe vpon any waggon or horsebacke: the offenders to be punisht according to the time and place.


He that runnes from his Colours in the field, shall die for it: and if any of his Comrades kill him in the meane time, hee shall be free.


What euer Regiment shall first charge the Enemy, and re­tyre afterward from them, before they come to dint of sword with them, shall answere it before our highest Martiall Court.


And if the thing be occasioned by any O [...]ficer; hee shall bee publikely disgraced for it, and then turnd out of the Leaguer.


But if both Officers and Soldiers be found faulty alike; then shall the Officers be punished as aforesaid: If it be in the Soul­diers alone, then shall euery tenth man be hanged: The rest shal be condēned to carry all the filth out of the Leaguer, vntill such time as they performe some exploit, that is worthy to procure their pardon: after which time they shall be cleere of the for­mer disgrace. But if at the first, any man can by the testimonie of ten men proue himselfe not guilty of the Cowardise, he shall goe free.


When any occasion of seruice is, he that first runnes away, if any man kill him, hee shall be free. And if at that time he e­scape, and be apprehended afterward, he shall bee procl [...]med Traytor, and then put out of the quarter, after which whoso­euer killeth him, shall neuer be called to account for it.


If any occasion be to enter any Castle, Towne, or [...] by assault or breach, he who retyres from the place before [...] hath beene at handy-blowes with the enemy and hath vsed [...] sword, so farre as it is possible for him to doe seruice with it [...] before he be by maine strength beaten off by the enemy shalbe so punisht as the Court shall censure him.


Whatsoeuer Ensigne bearer shal flye out of any place of battery sconce or redoubt before he hath endured [...] assaults, & receiues no reliefe; shall be pun [...]ed as before▪

[Page 52] Whatsoeuer Regiment, troope or Company, is the begin­ner of any mutiny; shalbe punisht as is aforementioned. The first Author to dye for it, and the next consenter; to be pu­nisht according to the discretion of the Court.


Whatsoeuer Regiment, Troope, or Company refuses to ad­uance forward to charge the Enemie: but out of feare and cowardise stayes behind their fellowes, shalbe punisht, as be­fore.


If any Regiment, Troope, or Company, shall flye out of the Field or Battell; then shall they 3. seuerall times, ( [...]6. weekes being betwixt euery time,) answer for it before the Court. And if there it can be proued that they haue done ill, and haue broken their Oath; they shalbe Proclaimed Traytors, and all their Goods shalbe confiscated; whither they be present to an­swer it before the Court or not. If they be absent, they shalbe allotted so many dayes as wee shall appoint them, for liberty to come in to answer it before the Court: where if they cleere themselues, well & good: if not, they shall haue so many dayes to retyre themselues: after which if they be apprehended, then shall they be punisht according as the Court shal doome them.


Whatsoeuer Regiment, Troope, or Company, shall treate with the Enemie, or enter into any conditions with them whatsoeuer, (without our leave, or our Generalls, or chiefe Commander in his absence) whatsoeuer officer shall doe the same, shalbe put to death for it, and all his goods shalbe con­fiscated. Of the Soldiers euery tenth man shalbe hanged; and the rest punished, as is aforesaid.


Whosoeuer presuming to doe the same, & shalbe taken there­with; shalbe proceeded withall like those that flye out of the Field. Their Goods also shalbe confiscate.


If any that then were in company of such, can free thēselues from being partakers in the crime, and can prove that they did [Page 53] their best to resist it, then shall they be rewarded by vs, accor­ding as the matter is of importance.


They that giue ouer any strength vnto the Enemy, vnlesse it be for extremitie of hunger, or want of Amunition: the Gouernor, with all the Officers shall dye for it; all the soldi­ours be lodged without the Quarter without any Colours; be made to carry out all the filth of the Leaguer: thus to conti­nue, vntill some noble exploit by them performed, shall pro­merite pardon for their former cowardise.


Whatsoeuer soldiours shall compell any Gouernor to giue vp any strength, shall lose their life for it. Those, eyther Offi­cers or soldiours that consent vnto it, to be thus punished: the Officers to dye all: and of the soldiours euery tenth man to be hanged. But herein their estate shalbe considered: if they al­ready suffered famine, and want of necessaries for their life; and be withall out of hope to be relieued; and are so pressed by the enemie, that of necessity they must within a short time giue vp the Piece, endangering their liues thereby without all hope of reliefe: herein shall our Generall with his Councell of Warre, either cleere them, or condemne them, according to their merit.


If any numbers of soldiours shall without leaue of their Cap­taine assemble together, for the making of any convention, or taking of any Councell amongst themselues, so many inferi­our Officers as be in company with them; shall suffer death for it; and the soldiours be so punisht, as they that giue vp a­ny strength. Also, at no time shall they haue liberty to hold any meeting amongst themselves; neither shall any Captaine per­mit it vnto them: he that presumes to suffer them, shall an­swer it before our highest Court.


If any being brought in question amongst others, shall call for help of his owne nation or of others; with intention rather to be reuenged, then to defend himselfe, he shall suffer death [Page 54] for it; and they that come in to help him, shalbe punished like mutiniers.


Whosoeuer giues aducie vnto the Enemie any manner of way, shall dye for it.


Who euer vpon any strength holds discourse with the E­nemie, more or lesse, without our leaue, our Generalls, or the Gouernour of the place; shall dye for it.


If it be proued that they haue giuen the Enemie any pri­uate Intelligence, by letters or otherwise, without leaue, as aforesaid; shall dye for it.


And so shall they, that giue any token, signe or Item vnto the Enemie.


Euery man shalbe contented with that Quarter that shalbe giuen him, either in the towne or Leaguer: the contrary doer, to be reckoned for a mutinier.


Who euer flings away his Armes, either in the Field or other where; shalbe scourged through the Quarter; and then be lodged without it: be enforced to make the streets cleane: vntil they redeeme themselues by some worthy exploit doing.


He that sells or empawnes his Armes, or any kind of Am­munition whatsoeuer; or any hatchets, spades, shovells, pick­axes, or other the like necessary implements vsed in the Field; shalbe for the first and second time, beaten through the quar­ter: and for the third time punisht, as for other theft. He al­so that buyes or takes them vpon pawne, be he soldiour, or be he victualler: he shall first loose his money, and then be puni­shed like him that sold them.


He that wilfully breakes any of his Armes, or implements aforesaid; shall againe pay for the mending of them: and after [Page 55] that be punisht with Bread and Water, or otherwise, accor­ding to the discretion of the Court.


He that after warning to the contrary, shall eyther buy or sell; shall first loose all the things so sold or bought; and then be punished for his disobedience, as is aforesaid.


No man that hath once beene proclaimed Traytor, eyther at home or in the Feild: or that hath beene vnder the Hang­mans hands; shall euer be endured againe in any company.


No Duell or Combate shall be permitted to be foughten, eyther in the Leaguer or place of strength. If any offers wrong to others, it shall be decided by the Officers of the Re­giment. He that challenges the Feild of another; shall answer it before the Martiall Court. If any Captaine, Leiftenant, Anti­ent, or other inferiour officer, shall eyther giue leaue or per­mission vnto any vnder theyr commaund to enter com­bate, and doeth not rather hinder them; shall bee presently ca­shiered from their charges & serve afterward as a Reformado or Common Soldiour. But if any harme be done, he shall an­swere it as deeply, as he that did it.


He that forces any Woman to abuse her; and the matter be proved, he shall dye for it.


No Whore shall be suffered in the Leaguer: but if any will haue his owne wife with him, he may. If any vnmaried wo­man be found, he that keepes her may haue leaue lawfully to marry her; or els be forced to put her away.


No man shall presume to set fire on any Towne or Village in our land: If any does, he shall be punisht according to the importancy of the matter, so as the Iudges shall sentence him.


No Soldiour shall set fire vpon any Towne or Village in the [Page 56] enemies land; without he be commanded by his Captaine. Nei­ther shall any Captaine giue any such command, vnlesse hee hath first receiued it from Vs, or our Generall: who so does the contrary, he shall answer it in the Generals counsayle of Warre, according to the importance of the matter. And if it be proued to be preiudiciall vnto vs, and aduantageous for the enemie; he shall suffer death for it.


No soldier shall pillage any thing from our subiects vpon any march, strength, leaguer, or otherwise howsomeuer, vpon paine of death.


He that beates his Host or his houshold seruants, the first and second time he shalbe put in Irons, and made to fast with bread and water, according as the wrong is that he hath done: if the harme be great hee shall bee punisht thereafter, according to the discretion of the Court.


None shall presume to doe wrong to any that bring neces­saries into our Leaguer, Castle, or strength whatsoeuer, or to cast their goods downe off their horses, and take away their horses perforce: which who so does, shall die for it.


They that pillage or steale eyther in our land or in the ene­mies, or from any of them that come to furnish our Leaguer or strength, without leaue; shalbe punisht as for other theft.


If it so pleases God that we beate the enemy, eyther in the field, or in his Leaguer, then shall euery man follow the chace of the enemies, and no man giue himselfe to fall vpon the pil­lage, so long as it is possible to follow the Enemy, and vntill such time as he be assuredly beaten. Which done, then may their quarters befallen vpō, euery man taking what he findeth his owne quarter. Neyther shall any man fall to plunder one anothers quarters, but rest himselfe contented with that which is assigned him.


If any man giues himselfe to fall vpon the pillage, before leaue be giuen him so to doe, then may any of his Officers freely kill him. Moreouer, if any misfortune ensue vpon their greedinesse after the spoyle, then shall all of them suffer death for it. And notwithstanding there comes no damage thereup­on, yet shall they lye in Irons for one Moneth, liuing all that while vpon bread and water: giuing all the pillage so gotten, vnto the next hospitall. He that plunders another quarter, shall also haue the same punishment.


When any Fort or place of strength is taken in, no man shall fall vpon the spoyle, before that all the places in which the enemy is there lodged, be also taken in, and that the sol­diers and Burgers haue layd downe their Armes, and that the quarters be dealt out and assigned to euery body. Who so does the contrary, shall be punished as before.


No man shall presume to pillage any Church or Hospitall, although the strength be taken by assault, except hee bee first commanded; or that the soldiers and Burgers be fled therein­to and doe harme from thence. Who does the contrary, shall be punished as aforesaid.


No man shall set fire vpon any Church, Hospitall, Schoole, or Mill, or spoyle them any way, except hee bee commanded. Neyther shall any tyrannize ouer any Churchman, or aged peo­ple, Men or Women, Maydes or Children, vnlesse they first take Armes against them, vnder paine of punishment at the discretion of the Iudges.


If any soldier happens to get freeboot, in any Castle, City, Towne, Fort, strength, or Leaguer; and moreouer, whatsoeuer Ordnance, Munition for warre, & victuals is found there, shall [Page 58] be left for Our use; the rest shall be the Soldiours: onely the tenth part therof, shall they giue to the sicke and maymed Sol­diours in the hospitals. All prisoners shall first be presented vnto Vs; amongst which if there be any man of note, whom We desire to haue vnto Our selues; we promise in lieu there­of, honestly to recompence the taker of him, according to the quality of the person. Other prisoners of inferior ranke, may the takers keepe vnto themselues; whom by O [...]r leaue or Our Generals, they may put to their ransome, and take it to themselues: but without leaue they may not ransome them, vpon paine of death.


If any be found drunken in the enemies Leaguer, Castle or Towne, before the enemy hath wholly yeilded himselfe vp to our mercy, and laide downe his armes; whosoeuer shall kill the said drunken Soldiour shall be free for it: alwayes pro­uided, that good proofe be brought that he was drunken. And if that soldiour escapes for that time with his life, and that it can appeare that some damage or hinderance hath come vnto Our Seruice, by his drunkennesse; then wheresoeuer he be apprehended, he shall die for it. But if no hurt ensued thereof; yet shall he be put in Irons for the space of one month, liuing vpon his pittance of bread and water.


All Our soldiours shall duely repaire unto the generall Mu­sters, vpon the day and houre appointed: nor shall any Colonel or Captaine either of horse or foote, keepe back his Soldiours from being mustered at the time when Our Muster Masters shall desire to view them: if any refuses, he shall be taken for a mutinier.


No Colonell nor Captaine shall lend any of their soldiours one to another vpon the muster-dayes, for the making vp of their numbers compleat: He that thus makes a false muster, shall answere it at a Martiall Court; where being found guilty, he shalbe proclamed Traytor: after which being put out of the Quarter, his Colours shall flie no more.


If any soldiour hires out himselfe for money to runneRuning the Gatelope is, when he that hath done the fault▪ is to runne between the Regiment standing halfe on one side, &, halfe on the [...], with W [...]ippes [...] their hands, to la [...]h and cudgel th [...] off [...]nder. which punish­ment many a shameless [...] sol­diour, will be hired to vnder­goe for drinke or money. the Gatelope three, seuerall times; he shall be beheaded. And if any Captaine shall so permit or counsel his soldiour to doe the same; he shall be actually cashiered.


If any horsman borrowes eyther Horse, Armer, Pistoll, Sadle, Sword, or Harnesse to passe the Muster withall; so much as is borrowed shall be escheated; and himselfe after that turned out of the Leaguer: as likewise he shall, that lent it him. The one halfe of the Armes forfeited shall goe vnto the Captaine, and the other halfe vnto the Perforce.


If it can be proued that any Horseman hath wilfully spoi­led his horse; he shall be made Traytor; loose his horse, and be turned out of the Quarter.


All Soldiours both of horse and foote, shall be taken on at a free muster, but not by any priuate Captaine, neyther shall their pay goe on, before they be mustered by Our Muster-ma­sters.


No Soldiour either of horse or foote shall be cashiered by his Colonell, Captaine, or other inferiour officer▪ Nor shall they, who being taken on at a free Muster, haue their men sworne to serue (if it please God) vntill the next muster; except it be vpon afree muster: at which time, the Muster-masters and his Colonel, may freely giue him his passe.


If any forreigne soldiour shall desire his passe in any towne of garrison after the enemy be retired, he may haue it: but by no meanes whilest there is any seruice to be done against the e­nemy.


If any soldiour Our natiue Subiects desires to be discharged from the warres, he shall giue notice therof vnto the Muster­maisters; who, if they find him to be sicke, or maimed, or that [Page 60] he hath serued 20. yeares in our warres; or hath beene tenne seuerall times before the enemy; and can bring good witnesse thereof; he shall be discharged.


If any Colonell or Captaine eyther of Horse or Foote, does giue any Passe otherwise then is before mentioned, he shall be punished as for other Felonies: and he who hath obteyned the said Passe, shall loose three moneths pay; and be put in Prison for one month, vpon bread and water.


No Colonell or Captaine eyther of Horse or Foote, shall giue leaue to his soldiours to goe home out of the Field, with­out leaue of our Generall or Chiefe Commander: whoeuer does the contrary, shall loose 3. moneths pay, and answere it before the Court.


No Captaine eyther of Horse or Foote, shall presume to goe out of any leaguer or place of Strength to demaund his Pay, without leaue of the Generall or Governour: who so doeth, shall be cashiered from his place, and be put out of the Quar­ter.


No Captaine eyther of Horse or Foot, shall hold back any of his soldiers meanes from him; of which if any complaine, the Captaine shall answer it before the Court: where being found guilty, he shal be punisht as for other felonie. Also, if any mis­chance ensue thervpon; as that the soldiours mutiny, be sick, or endure hunger, or giue up any Strength; then shall he an­swere for all these inconueniences that herevpon can or may ensue.


If any Captaine lends money vnto his soldiours, which he desires to bee payd againe; that must be done in presence of the Muster-Maisters; that Our seruice be no wayes hindred or neglected.


If vpon necessity the case sometimes so falls out in the lea­guer, that Pay be not alwayes made at the due time mentio­ned in the Commissions; yet shall euery man in the meane time be willing to further Our service; seeing they haue victuals sufficient for the present: and that they shall so soone as may be receiue the rest of their meanes, as is mentioned in their Commission.


Very requisite it is, that good Iustice be holden amongst our Soldiers, as well as amongst other our subiects.


For the same reason was a King ordained by God, to be the soueraigne Iudge in the Field, as well as at home.


Now therefore, in respect of many occasions which may fall out, his single Iudgment alone may be to weake to discerne e­uery particular circumstance; therfore it is requisite, that in the leaguer as well as other where, there be some Court of Iustice erected, for the deciding of all controuersies: and to be careful in like manner, that Our Articles of warres be of all persons obserued and obeyed, so farre forth as is possible.


Wee ordeine therefore, that there be 2. Courts in our lea­guer, an Higher Court, and a Lower.


The Lower Court shall be among the Regiments both of Horse and Foote; whereof every Regiment shall haue one a­mong themselues.


In the Horse-Regiments, the Colonell shall bee Presi­dent, and in his absence, the Captaine of Our owne Life­guards. With them are three Captanies to bee joyned, [Page 62] three Leiftenants, 3. Cornets, and 3. Quarter-masters: that so togither with the President, they may be to the number of 13. at the least.


In a Regiment of Foot, the Colonell also shall be President; and his Leiftenant-Colonell in his absence. With them are 2. Captains to be joyned, 2. Lieftenants, 2. Antients, 4. Sergeants, and 2. Quarter-masters: that together with the President, they may be 13. in number also.


In our Highest Martiall Court, shall Our Generall be Presi­dent: in his absence, Our Field Marshall. When Our Generall is present, his Associates shall be, our Field-Marshall first, next him. Our Generall of the Ordnance, Sergeant-Maior generall, Generall of the Horse, Quarter-Maister generall. Next to them shall sit Our Muster-Masters, and all Our Colonels; and in their absence, their Leiftenant-Colonels. All these shall sit togither, wheneuer there is any matter of greater importance in controversie.


Whensoever this Highest Court is to be holden, they shall obserue this Order. Our great Generall as President, shall sit alone at the head of the Table: on his right hand our Field-Marshall; on his left hand the Generall of the Ordnance, On the right hand next, our Sergeant Maior generall; on the left hand againe, the Generall of the Horse: and then the Quarter-Maister generall on one hand, and the Muster-Maister generall on the other. After them, shall euery Colonell sit according to his place, as here followes. First, the Colonell of our Life. Regiment, or of the guards for our owne person. Next, the Colonel for the Vplandish, the Colonel for the West-Goths, the Colonell for the Smollands, the Colonell of the Ostro-Goths, the Colonell for the Dales and Northlands; After them, the Colonels for the Finlanders, and Carelians, according to their antiquity of service. If there happen to bee any great men in the army of our owne true subiects, that be of good vnder­standing; they shall cause them to sit next these Officers afore­said. [Page 63] After them shall sit all other Colonels of strange Nati­ons, euery one according to his antiquitie of seruice.


All these Iudges both of our Higher and lower Courts, shall vnder the blew Skies thus sweare before Almighty God, that they will inviolably keepe this following Oath vnto Vs. I N. N. doe here promise before God vpon his holy Gospell, that I both will and shall Iudge vprightly in all things according to the Law of God, of the Swedens, and these Articles of warres; so farre forth as it pleases Almighty God to giue mee vnder­standing. Neyther will I for fauour or for hatred, for goodwill, feare, ill will, anger, or any guift or bribe whatsoeuer, iudge wrongfully: but iudge him free, that ought to bee free, and doome him guilty, that I finde guilty; as the Lord of Heauen and Earth shall helpe my Soule and Body at the last day, I shall hold this Oath truly.


The Iudge [...]f our highest Court, shall take this their Oath, in the first Leaguer where our Campe shall be pitched. Our Ge­nerall, and the rest appointed to sit with him, shall repayre to the place where we shall appoint, before his Tent, or other­where: where an Officer appointed by vs, shall first take his Oath, and then the others Oaths also.


When the Presidents of our lower Courts shall heare this foresayd Oath reade before them, then shall they hold vp their hands and sweare to keepe it. In like manner, so often as any Court is to bee holden in any Regiment, the foresayd Oath shall bee read before all them that sit in iudgement with him: who shall also hold vp their hands, and promise to keepe the Oath aforesayd.


In our highest Court there shall bee one sworne Secretarie appointed, who shall make diligent Record of all the procee­dings, [Page 64] that fall out, eyther in any pitcht battel, skirmish, Lea­guer, or any other peece of seruice whatsoeuer. Hee shall take the note, both of the day, place, and houre, with all other cir­cumstances that shall happen. Hee shall also set his hand vnto all sentences signed by our Generall. Hee shall also haue two Clerkes or Notaries vnder him, who shall engrosse all these passages, and keepe a true Register of all enterprizes, that our Generall with his Counsayle of warre, shall giue order to haue done: and likewise of what Lettets be eyther written or re­ceiued.


In our highest Court there shall bee one Vice-president, who shall command the Sergeant at Armes, whose Office is to warne in all the Iudges of that Court, that they may there ap­peare at the time and place appointed: and also to giue the same notice, both vnto the plaintiffe and defendant.


In all lower Courts also there shall be one sworne Clerke, or Secretary, who shall likewise hold the sam [...] order, that is mentioned in our highest Court.


Our highest Court shall be carefull also to heare and Iudge all criminall actions: and especially, cases of Conspiracie or Treason practised or plotted against vs, either in word or deed. Secondly, If any giues out dishonourable speeches against our Maiesty. Thirdly, or consulteth with the Enemy to betray our Leaguer, Castle, Towne, Souldiers, Fleete, any way what­soeuer. Fourthly, Also if any there bee partakers of such Trea­chery, and reueale it not. Fiftly, or any that hath held cor­respondency and intelligence with the Enemy. Sixtly, If any hath a spite or malice against vs or our Country. Seauenthly, if any speakes disgracefully, eyther of our person or endeauours. Eightly, if lastly intendeth treachery against our Generall, or his vnder-Officers, or that speaketh disgracefully of them.


All questions in like manner happening betwixt Officers and their souldiers, if they suspect our lower Court to be par­tiall any way, then may they appeale vnto our higher Court, who shall decide the matter.


If a Gentleman or an Officer bee summoned to appeare before the lower Court, for any matter of importance that may touch his life, or honour, then shall the same bee decided by our higher Court.


All Ciuill questions that bee in controuersie in our lower Court, if the debt or fine extends vnto fiue hundred Dollars or aboue, if the parties complaine of iniustice, they may thence appeale vnto the higher Court, if so bee they can first proue the iniustice.


All other occasions that may fall out, bee they Ciuill or be they Criminall, shall first come before our lower Court, where they shall bee heard: and what is there by good euidence pro­ued shall be recorded.


Any Criminall action that is adiudged in our lower Court, wee command that the sentence bee presented vnto our Ge­nerall. Wee will not haue it presently put in execution, vntill hee giues command for it in our absence. But Our selues be­ing in person there present, will first take notice of it, and di­spose afterwards of it, as wee shall thinke expedient.


In our higher Court, the Generall Perforce or his Lieute­nant, shall bee the plaintiffe, who shall bee bound to follow the complaint diligently: to the end hee may the better en­forme our Counsellors, who are to doe Iustice. If it be a mat­ter against our selues, then shall our owne Aduocate defend our action, before our Court.


The same power hath the Perforce of euery Regiment, in our lower Court. Which Perforce shall bee bound also to giue notice of euery breach of these Articles of warre, that the in­fringer may be punished.


Whatsoeuer fine is by the foresayd Iudges determined, ac­cording to our Articles of warre, and Escheated thereupon, shall be deuided into three parts. Our owne part of the fine, Wee freely bestowe vpon the seuerall Captaines eyther of Horse or Foote, which is forfeyted by their Officers and soul­diours: and the forfeytures of euery Captaine, wee bestow vpon their Colonell: and the forfeytures of all Colonels, wee giue vnto our Generall. The other two parts, belonging ey­ther to the party to whom it is adiudged, or to the Court, those leaue wee vndisposed: the point of Treason onely being ex­cepted. And this gift of ours vnto our Officers, is to bee vn­derstood to endure so long, as the Army be in the field, vpon any strength or Worke, and till they come home againe: After which time, they shall come vnder the Law of the Land, like the other naturall Inhabitants.


Whensoeuer our highest Court is to sit, it shall bee two houres before proclaymed through the Leaguer, that there is such an Action criminall to bee there tryed, which is to bee decided vnder the blew Skies. But if it bee an Action Ci­vill, then may the Court bee holden within some Tent or other where. Then shall the Souldiers come together about the place where the Court is to bee holden: no man presu­ming to come too neere the Table where the Iudges are to sit. Then shall our Generall come formost of all, and the other his Associates, two and two together; in which order, they all comming out of the Generals Tent, shall set themselues downe in the Court, in the order before appointed. The Secretaries place shall bee at the lower end of the Table, where hee [Page 67] shall take diligent notice in writing, of all things declared be­fore the Court. Then shall the Generall Perforce begin to o­pen his complaint before them, and the Contrary party shall haue liberty to answere for himselfe; vntill the Iudges be tho­rowly enformed of the truth of all things.


If the Court be to be holden in any house or Tent, they shall obserue the same order in following the Generall in their de­grees: where they shall also sit as is afore mentioned.


The matter being thoroughly opened and considered vpon, according to the importance of it; and our whole Court agre­ing in one opinion: they shall commaund their Sentence con­cerning the same action to be publikely there read, in the hea­ring of all men: alwaies reseruing, his Maiesties further Will and Pleasure.


In our Lower Court, they shall also hold the same order; sauing that the particular Court of euery Regiment, shall be holden in their owne Quarter.


In this lower Court, they shall alwaies obserue this order; namely, that the President sit at the boards end alone; the Cap­taines, Lieutenants and Antients, upon either side: so many Inferiour officers also vpon each side; that so they may the better reason vpon the matter among themselues. Last of all, shall the Clerke or Secretary sit at the lower end of the table: the one party standing vpon one hand, and the other vpon the other.


So soone as the sentence is giuen, the President shall rise vp, and all that sit with him. But doome being giuen by our Ge­nerall that one of the parties must loose his head, hand, or the like; then shall they Comaund the Perforce to take him away to prison. Which done, the Perforce shall send vnto the Mi­nister, to desire him to visit the party, and to giue him the Communion. But if the doome be passed in any Lower Court, it shall be signified vp vnto the Generall in our absence: who shall eyther pardon the fact, or execute the sentence.


No superior officer, Colonell or Captaine, eyther of Horse or foot, shall solicite for any man that is lawfully conuicted by the Court; either for any Crime, or for not obseruing of these Articles of warre: vnlesse it be for his very neere kinsman, for whome nature compells him to intercede. Otherwise, the solicitor shall be held as odious as the Delinquent, and ca­shiered from his charge.


Whosoeuer is minded to serue Vs in these warres, shall be obliged to the keeping of these Articles. If any out of pre­sumption, vpon any Strength, in any Leaguer, in the Feild, or vpon any Worke shall doe the contrary; be he natiue, or be he Stranger, Gentleman or other: Processe shall be made out against him for euery time, so long as he serues Vs in these warres, in the quality of a soldiour.


These Articles of warres wee haue made and ordeined, for the welfare of our natiue Country: and doe commaund, that they be reade euery month publikely before euery Regiment: to the end, that no man shall pretend ignorance. Wee further will and commaund all whatsoeuer officers, higher and lower, and all our common soldiours; and all other that come into our Leaguer among the Soldiours; that none presume to doe [Page 69] the contrary hereof, vpon paine of rebellion, and the incur­ring of our high displeasure. For the firmer confirmation whereof, we haue hereunto set Our hand and Seale.


THese aboue written Articles, are the standing and generall Orders and Politie, whereby his Maiesties Army is direct­ed. They were in vse, I perceiue Anno 1621. when He went to conquer Riga in Leiffland: for I finde them written in a Iournall book of that expedition, by a Scottish Gentleman then in that seruice: the copy whereof was communicated vnto me, by the Right Honorable the Lord Reay: which I haue since also compared with another Copy. To these, vpon occasion hath his Majesty sometimes made addition of some others; as the last yeare, 1631. he did: when vpon the vnrulinesse of his soldiours in the New Marke of Brandonburg (of which his Majesty, as wee told you in our former booke, much com­plained) He caused these new Articles to be published, which I find in the booke called Arma Suecica.


No Soldiour shall abuse any Churches, Colledges, Schooles, or Hospitals, or offer any kind of violence to Ecclesiasticall persons nor any wayes be troublesome with pitching or en­quartering, vpon them: or with exacting of contribution, from them. No soldiour shall giue disturbance or offence to a­ny person excercising his sacred function, or ministery; vpon payne of death.


Let the Billets and Lodging in euery City, be assigned to the soldiours by the Burgo-marsters; and let noe Commaunder presume to meddle with that office. No Commaunder or Common soldiour shall eyther exact or receiue of the Citi­zens, any thing besides what the King hath appointed to be received.


No Citizens nor Countrey Boores shall be bound to allow vnto eyther soldiour or officer, any thing but what is contai­ned in the Kings orders for Contributions & Enquarterings▪ that is to say, nothing besides House-roome, fire-wood, can­dles, vineger and salt: which yet is so to be vnderstood, that the inferior officers, as Sergeants and Corporals, and those vn­der them, as also all common soldiours; shall make shift with the common fire and candle of the house where they lie, and doe their businesse by them.


If so be, that Colonels and other Commaunders haue any seruants or attendants, they shall not be maintained by the Citizens or Boores, but by their owne maisters.


No Commaunder shall take any house or lodging into his protection or at his owne pletsure giue a ticket of freedome; when such ticket is not expressely desired of him: nor shall he receiue any bribe or present, to mend his owne commons with­all; vnder any colour or pretext whatsoeuer. If any man desire a personall safeguard; let him be contented with that which is appoynted in the Kings orders.


To Commaunders and Soldiours present, let the vsuall allow­ance be afforded by the Citizens: but let no care be taken for such as are away.


New leuied soldiours are to haue no allowance, before they [...]e enterteyned at the Muster.


Nothing is to be allowed the soldiours in any house, but in the same where he is billetted: if they take any thing other­where by force, they are to make it good.


If eyther officers, soldiours, or Sutlers, be to trauaile tho­rough any Country; the people are not to furnish them with wagons, Post-horse, or victuals, but for their ready money, vnlesse they bring a warrant, eyther from the King, or theyr Generall.


No Soldiour is to forsake his Colours, and to put himselfe into entertainement vnder any other Colonell or Garrison, or to ramble about the Country, without he hath his Colonels passe, or his that is in his steade: who so does; it shall be law­full for the Boores or any other to apprehend him, and to send him prisoner to Stetin, or the next garrison of the Kings: where he shall be examined, and punished accordingly.


Whosoever haue any lawfull Passes, ought by no meanes to abuse the benefit of them; or practise any cheates vnder pre­tence of them. If any be found with any pilfery, or to haue ta­ken any mans cattell or goods: it shall be lawfull for the Country people to lay hands vpon them; and to bring them to Stetin or other the next garrison: speciall care being allwayes had, that if the prisoner hath any letters of moment about him, they be speedily and safely deliuered.


Our Curryers or Posts though they haue lawfull Passes to travell withall; yet shall they not ride the Post-Horses which they hyre, beyond the next stage; and if they shall take away any horse from one or other, to tyre out with hard ryding and beyond reason; they shall be bound to returne that horse again▪ or to make satisfaction for him. The same order shall take place too, when any regiments or troups of ours, shall remove from one quarter to another (namely when they shall hyre [Page 72] Postillons or baggage-wagons for the carriage of their valises Armes, or Ammunition.)


The houses of the Princes or nobility, which haue no neede to borrow our guard to defend them from the enemy, shall not be pressed with soldiours.


Moreouer, vnder a great Penalty it is provided, that neyther officers nor soldiers, shall make stay of, or arrest' the Princes Commissaries or Officers, or any Gentlemen, Councellors of state, Senators or Burgers of any Cities, or other Country peo­ple: nor shall giue offence to them by any fact of violence.


Trauailers or other Passengers going about their businesse into any garrisons or places of muster; shall by no meanes bee stayed, iniured, or haue any contribution laide vpon them.


Our Commaunders shall defend the Countrey people and ploughmen that follow their husbandries, and shall suffer none to hinder them in it.


No Commaunder or Common soldiour whatsoeuer, either in any towne of garrison or Place of muster, shall exact any thing vpon passengers; nor shall lay any Custom or Toll vp­on any merchandise imported or exported: nor shall any be a hinderance to the Lord of the Place, in receiuing his due Cu­stomes or Toll-gathering; but a furtherance rather.


If any of our officers hauing power of commaund, shall giue the word for any Remoue or March to some other Quarter; those soldiours, eyther of horse or foote, that priuily lurke behinde their fellowes, shall haue no power to exact any part of the contributions formerly allotted for their maintenance in that place: but shall seuerally be punished rather, for their lingering behind the Armie.


Whatsoeuer is not conteined in these Articles, and is re­pugnant to Military discipline; or wherby the miserable and innocent Country, may against all right and reason be bur­dened withall: whatsoeuer offence finally, shalbe committed against these Orders; that shall the seuerall Commaunders make good, or see seuerally punished; vnlesse themselves will stand bound to giue further satisfaction for it.


According to these Articles, let euery man gouerne his bu­sinesse and actions and learne by them to take heede, of com­ming into the lurch or danger.

Signed in our Leaguer Royall, Anno, 1632. Gustavus Adolphus.

THE THIRD PART, of the SVVEDISH Discipline.

The Forme of a Commission given out by his Maiestie of Sweden, for the levying of a Regiment.

WEe GVSTAVUS ADOLPHVS, by the Grace of God, King of the Swedens, Gothes, and Vandals, Great Prince of Finland, Duke of Esthonia, and Carelia, Lord of Ingria; give notice by these Presents; That We have ordained and accepted Our specially be­loved and trusty N. N. to be our Colo­nell of eight (English) Foot-Companies, in manner and forme following. That is to say; that the sayd Colonell N. N. shall for Vs and our behoofe, levie eight Companies of good and able Foot-Souldiers, each Company being reckoned 150. men by the Poll: together with the superiour Officers and Regiment (1) Staffe: and shall appoint & provide the Com­panies with experienced Officers and Souldiers in manner fol­lowing; against such a day, of such a Moneth, in such a yeare; and shall deliver the same compleat in our royall Campe, and where we then shall be. All and every one of which, as well the Colonell with his superiour and inferiour Officers, as al­so the Soldiers in generall, shall be bound to performe unto Vs the bond and oath of Fidelity, so long as we shall stand in need of their Military service: and shall suffer themselves to be mustered by our Commissaries, where, when, and as often as it shall please Vs: and also, shall doe and performe all such [Page 76] things, as may apperteine to the profit and good of Vs and of Our kingdome, & which our Articles of Warre shall requires and which shall become good and honest Officers and soul­diours to performe. On the other side; Wee for the raysing of the sayd 8. Companies, doe allow and graunt vnto the said Colonell, in the name of Levie and passe Moneys, nine Im­periall Dollars for euery head. And to pay the Muster-month according to the Contents of the List, and thence following Monthly (reckoning 30. dayes to a Moneth,) to pay vnto him and his Regiment, as certaine pay and wages of their Military seruice, in good and currant Money, as followeth, viz.

  • To the Colonell, 184 Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Lieutenant, Colonell 80. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Sergeant Major, 61. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the chiefe Quarter-master, 30. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the two Preachers, each, 18. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the (2) Regiment Schults, 30. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the foure Surgeons, each, 12. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the 4. Prouost-marshals, each, 12. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Clerke of the Regiment, 30. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Clerke of the Counsell of warre, 18. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Gerichts Webell, or Sergeant of the Court of Warre. 18. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the 2. Stock Knights, or Beadles, each, 3 Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Hangman, 7. Ryxe Dollars.
Secondly to be giuen Monethly to euery one of each Company.
  • To the Captaine, 61. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Lieutenant, 30. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Ancient, 30. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To two Sergeants, each, 9. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Fuhrer, (5) Furryer, (6) Muster Schri­ber, and the (7) Rust master, each, 7. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Drummers and Pipers, each, 4. Ryxe Dollars.
  • [Page 77] To sixe Corporals, each, 6. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To fifteene (8) Rot Masters, each, 5. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To 21. inferiour Rot-Masters, each, 4. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To each common-souldiour three & an halfe. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To 4. (9) Muster boyes, each, 3. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To 14. (10.) Passe volants, each, 3. Ryxe Dollars.
But if their seruice requires (11) Lehnung, we will giue them as a certaine Lehnung euery Moneth, viz.
  • To the Colonell, 69. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Lieutenant Col. 32. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Sergeant Major, 14. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Chiefe Quarter-master, 11. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the two Preachers, each, 7. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Regiment Schultz, 11. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the foure Surgeons, each, 7. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the foure Prouosts, each, 7. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Clerke of the Regiment, 11, Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Clerke of the Counsell of warre. 7. Ryxe Dollars.
  • The Gericht webell, 7. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the two Stocke Knights, each, 1. & a halfe, Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the hangman, 5, Ryxe Dollars.
And to euery one of each Company as followeth,
  • To the Captaine, 14. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Lieutenant and Ancient, each, 11. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the two Sergeants, each 5. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To the Fuhrer, Furier, Clerke of the Band and Rust-master, each, 4. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To three Drummers and Fifers, each, 2. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To sixe Corporals, each, 3. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To fifteene Rot-maisters, each, 2. Ryxe Dollars.
  • To 21. inferiour Rot-maisters, each, 1. [...]/2 Ryxe Dollars.
  • To foure Muster Boyes, each, 1, Ryxe Dollars.
  • To foureteene Passe-volants, each, 1. Ryxe Dollars.

[Page 78] Moreover, as for their Armes, Weapons, entertainment, and Discharge; Wee will at all times, ranke and account the said Colonell and his Officers, equall with our old levied Dutch-Soldiers: and if in the continuance of their service, one or other of the said Regiment shall be fairely taken by the E­nemy; or shall happen to be otherwise maymed or disabled; they shall, according to their seuerall Conditions and carria­ges, be redeemed by ransome or exchange: and he that shall be so hurt, if he be minded to stay in our Lands; shall for his lifetime be provided of needfull sustenance: but if he be de­sirous to depart, we will graciously give our Passe vnto him, and convenient money for his expences. Lastly, when wee shall no further desire their service, and shall graciously dis­charge them; wee will fully and compleatly pay vnto the said Colonell, his Officers and Soldiers, their full Arriers and rec­konings; with the addition of halfe a Moneths pay, over and aboue. And if their discharge shall happen to be in Sweden, we shall cause them to be transported in our owne Ships, into Dutch-land. All these Premisses shall be performed vpon Our Royall word, by vertue of this Capitulation.

Signed with our hand and Signet, &c. GVSTAVUS ADOLPHVS.

The Military termes explained.

(1) THe Regiment-Staffe, consists of such as are necessary people to the Regiment, notwithstanding their office be not to fight: of which the Quarter-master is the first, and the Hangman the last.

(2) The Regiment-Schultz, be the Examiners and Registers of Criminall matters, brought before the Martiall Court.

(3) The Stock-knights, be the Provosts or Perforces servants, that knocke the Irons on and off, and inflict other corporall punishments.

(4) The Fuhrer, is an Assistant to the Antient, that somtimes caries his Colours for him.

[Page] [Page 79] (5) The Furryers, be vnder Quarter-masters. They march sometimes with a Halberd, or Partizan.

(6) The Muster-Schreiber, is the Clerke of the Musters.

(7) The Rust-masters, is the Captaine of the Armes, that sees the soldiours keepe and weare their Armes duly.

(8) These 15. Rot-Masters, be Gentlemen of the Company, that haue some ouersight ouer the Rotts.

(9) (10) The Muster-boyes, be allowed for seruants to the Captaine and chiefe Officers: and so be the Passevolants.

(11) Lehnung, is Lending, in the paiment of the soldiours meanes, for which this is the Kings order. Wheras so much is due to them at the months end; the King deivding the month into 13. equall parts; vpon the first, eleuenth, and one and twentieth day of the moneth, payes them a third part of their meanes before-hand as it were: which is called Lendings.

The King of Swedens Order for a private Companie.

A Compleat Company, ought to be 3. Corporalships of Muskettiers; 4. Rotts or Files make a Corporalship of Muskettiers; But of Pikemen, 3. Rotts make a full Corporal­ship.

So that 12. Rotts of Musk ettiers, and 9. Rotts of Pikemen, that is 21. Rots in all, are a compleat Band of men. Whereup­on reckoning 6. men to every Rott or File (for so many, and no more, he marches deepe) a Compleat companie ought to be 126. men, besides the Officers and Seruants.

And if the Company be but weake, there must then be but 2. Corporalships of Muskettiers: and the remainder ought to be all Pikemen.

The Order the King of Sweden vseth, in drawing vp a compleat Battaglia: which is halfe a compleat Regiment or Squadron, consisting of 504. Men.

A Compleat Battaglia, ought to be 12. Corporalships, that is 32. Rotts of Pikemen: and 8. Corporalships, that is 32. Rotts of Musketiers: which amounts in all to 408. men.

So there remaineth still 4. Corporalships, that is, 16. Rotts of Muskettiers which continually march after the body, to be ready vpon all occasions; eyther to guard the baggage, or for any other Command. Which number of 16. Rotts, being added to the number of 408. men, makes 504. men: which is a Compleat Squadron or halfe Regiment.

The Figure of a Battaglia.

[Page 81]

[...]EN's NEVV VVAY, FOR THE DRAVVING VP A Muskettiers. First practised, in these late VVarres of Germanie: Communicated by my Lord Re [...]

The King of Swedens manner of draw­ing vp a Brigade of Pikes, and Musketiers, explained.

LEt the Reader bee first pleased to take notice, that the ranckes of little A'es are seuerall Corporall-ships of Mus­ketiers, consisting of 4. Rotts, each 6. deepe, and the little P'es are three squadrons of Pikemen.

Secondly, it is to be knowne: That although euery single Regiment may for a shift, and vpon some kind of seruice, stand for an entyre Brigade: yet because the Regiments, v­sually consisting but of 1008. men, at the fullest of the list; are not in a set battayle strong enough for a Brigade: therefore 2. Regiments commonly are taken in, to the making vp of a strong and compleat Brigade. This foreknowne, the Letters and Arithmeticall figures, either ouer or vnder the seuerall bo­dies of Pikes and Musketiers, signifie as followeth.

  • A. The place of the Colonels in their place of Command before their owne Regiments. So that A1. is the first, eldest, or Right-hand Colonell: A 2. the Left-hand Colonel.
  • B. Showes the place of Command for the Lieute­nant Colonells.
  • C. The Sergeant-Majors place.
  • D. The Quarter-maister to the Regiment.
  • E. The Captaine-Lieutenant, or Colonell-Captaine.
  • F. The Lieutenant-Colonels, Lieutenant.
  • G. The Sergeant-Majors Lieutenant.
  • [Page 82]
    • H1.
    • H2.
    • H3.
    • H4.
    • H5.
    The seuerall Captaines in their order of Senioritie, or eldership: of which there are but 5. besides the 3. great Officers of the Regiment; as Colonell; Lieu­tenant-Colonels, and Sergeant-Majors; who also haue Companies in the Regiment, which are com­manded by their Lieutenants: The Lieutenant to the Colonell, hauing by the curtesie of Armes, the title of Captaine: whose place is aboue at E.
    • L 1
    • L 2
    • L 3
    • L 4
    • L 5
    The place for the Lieutenants of euery Company [...] according to the eldership of their Captaines.
    • T 1
    • T 2
    • T 3
    • T 4
    • T 5
    • T 6
    • T 7
    • T 8
    Sergeants of the seuerall Bands,
  • V. The Corporall of the Gentlemen, after their Colours.
  • X. The Sergeants in the Reere of their Pikes.
  • Y. The Furryor for the residue of the Ouertroupes.
  • Z. The Captaine of Armes, behind the Forlorne troupe.
  • R. The Ancients following their Captaines.

The former Figure concerning the man­ner of the Enquartering of every Regiment of Foot, in the Kings Campe or Leaguer explained.

ON the head of the Quarter, you at first sight discerne 9. larger Squares; at eyther end of the Paper mar­ked A with the letter A. All which is called the Colo­nels or the Captaines ground, because there the Colonell lyes, whereas you see the word Colonest written: and the Captaines in their seniority, as you see their Huts or Cab­bins marked, each on the head of his owne Company.

The number over the Colonels Hutt, showes it to bee 48. foot broad; that is twice as broad as any of the Cap­taines cabbins, which you see marked with 24. At eyther end of this row of Squares, you see the number 30. mar­ked: which showes how many foot long, each of these greater Huts is.

Now whereas the King of Swedens Discipline is, vsu­ally to have but 8. Companies to a Regiment, so many Huts you see on the top of the Quarter; 4. on each side of the Colonels. And the reason of the King of Swedens ha­ving so few men in a Regiment, as 1008. and so few men in a Company, as 126. (those 1008. men being devided among 8. Captaines) is, that hee may both have the more places of preferment, and the more Officers to command his few men. An advantage which other Generals have not: who admit 3000. perchance, into a Regiment, and 200. 250. or 300. into a Captain­ship.

The Rowes of lesser Squares, marked on each side of B the paper with the letter B. are the Huts for the Soldiers to lye in. Betweene the Front of which, and the Colonels ground, you see a long voyd space or distance; which is 20. foot wide, as you see it at each end marked.

[Page 84] The vse of it is, for the drawing vp of the Companies, or of some of them, or for the meeting of Souldiers to speake with their Captaines: and for fresher ayre. This C space is marked with C.

Right vnder the Colonels Hutt you see another void space, as wide as the Colonels Hutt is, and as long as all the Quarter for the Common soldiours is: marked with D D. The vse of it is, for the Officers of the Regiment, cō ­monly called, the Officers of the Staffe. Such be the Quar­termasters of the Regiment, the 2. Regiment-Schults; the Preachers, Clarke Surgeons; Prouost-Marshals; Regi­ment-Weble, Stock-Knights, Drummer, Hangman, with others: as is to be seene in the Kings Commission for the raising of a Regiment.

Of the Quarters for the Common Soldiours, on eyther side of this long void space, these be the proportions. All the little Squares, be Hutts or Cabins of wood. In the M longer rowes, marked with the letter M. on the first Hutt, are the Musquettiers lodged; and in the shorter P rowes, marked with P. be the Pikemen lodged; one row of Musquettiers, and one row of Pikes, make up one compleat Band, or Company of 126. Men. In the Mus­ketiers row, be 24. Huts; and in the Pikemens, but 18. The reason of which, see in the King of Swedens Or­der for a priuate Company. Each of these Hutts is 9. foot Square, that is, 3. yards euery way: and whereas one row of Musquetiers, and one row of Pickes, belong to one Company; these therefore are neerer set together then the rowes of Pikes belonging to seuerall Companies are; for the Pikes and Musquetiers of the same Company, are parted with a street, but 6. foote wide; whereas be­twixt the Pikes of seuerall companies is a street of 18. foote wide: and betwixt the Musquettiers of seuerall Companies, a street of 12 foote wide. And so you see the seuerall proportions marked. The length of the Row of Pikes, is but 162. foote; as you see it marked betwixt the 2. first Rowes of their Hutts: and the length of the [Page 83] Musquettiers Row, is 216. foote; as is marked in the Margent. Cast, now, the distances of Bredth, and they amount to 360. foot: and so broad is the whole Quar­ter.

Below all this, in the Reere or lower end of the Quar­ter, you have avoyd space of 14. foot of ground, running all the bredth of the Quarter: serving againe for free­dome E of ayre, &c. This is marked with E. And last of all may you behold another allowance of ground, marked F with the letter F. which is for the Marcketenters; that is, the Market-holders, Chapmen, Victualers, and Sutlers of the Regiment. Adde now, the distances of length toge­ther, they come to 300. foot: which is the length of the whole Quarter, the allowance of ground for one entire Regiment.

But the chiefe point of the Discipline, is in the number & or­der of the placing of the Huts, & the men in them. Concerning the number, know, that there be 3. men lodged in every Hutt, aswell Pikes as Musketiers: so that in the 24. Huts of Muske­tiers of one Company, there be 72. men: and in the 18. Huts of Pikemen of one Company, there bee but 54. men; which numbers added together, come to 126; which is a compleat Band or Company, in the Kings Discipline.

These 72. Muskettiers, againe, be devided into 3. Cor­poralships: and the 54. Pikemen also into 3. Corporalships. Of Muskettiers, 4. Rotts or Files of marching men, goe to one Corporalship: And of Pikemen, there goe but 3. Rotts or Files, to a Corporalship. So that 24. Muskettiers, goe to one Corporalship; and of Pikes 18. according to the num­ber of eyther of their Cabbins. Whereas againe, the Kings Discipline is, ever to march 6. deepe, or in File: therefore in every 2. Huts, is there one Rot or File of men lodged, which presently know how to put themselves into order. Thus hath every Corporall of Muskettiers, 8. Hutts to looke vnto; and every Corporall of Pikes, 6. Cabins under him. This certain­ty and disposing of the numbers, serves much for the private Goverment.

[Page 86] This order of lying, in the second place, does as much [...]va [...]le for the resisting of the Enemy. Whereas you see two Rowes of Pikes, and two Rowes of Musketiers still together, with their Cabbindooers opening inward one towards ano­ther, this is the vse of it. Suppose the Enemy (in the night time perchance) to be falling on vpon the Leaguer or Quar­ [...]er, the Alarme being taken and giuen in thereupon, by those that haue the outter Guards, a good distance before euerie Quarter: out step the two Rowes of Pikes into the voyd [...]ace betwixt them: and presently marching out betweene the Captaines Hutts right before them, they are instantly in [...]aire order of battell. The Pikes gone, then the two next Rowes of Muskettiers ioyning together, march also out on both sides of their Pikes, where they are ready instantly to flancke them. Thus one Squadron or halfe Regiment issu­ing out on one side of their Colonels Hutt, and the other halfe on the other, presently draw themselues vp into two compleat Battaglias: who still finde their Colonell and Captaine in the head of the Quarter (where their Huts are) ready to conduct them. Thus so soone as the Alarme is gi­uen in from the outter-Guards, the Souldiers shall be in faire Battaglia, euery man before his owne quarter, vpon which the Enemy falls; before he can possibly (march he neuer so fast) come neere to doe any execution. If you desire to heare how in that huddle and darkenesse, they can possibly find their weapons: know that by the order of standing of them, eue­ [...]y man can at first comming most readily clap his hand vpon his owne. To instance in the Pikes, for example. The place where they all stand together, is vpon a thing like a payre of Gallowes at the head of the Quarter, all alongst which they [...]eane: So that after any seruice or exercise done abroad, hee that lyes in the Reere of the quarter by comming in first, sets downe his Pike inmost; and he that comes in last, leaues his outmost, which when he againe goes first out, hee findes for­most, and when the last man comes, he findes his owne left: euery man still keeping the same order that was at first ap­pointed: So that the Foreman, the Right-hand man, or the [Page 87] Bringer-vp, is the same euer, and his weapon therefore, euer in the same place. Thus lye the King of Swedens men: in bat­tle-array when they are in bed: in battle-array when they rise vp: and their Armes as ready as themselues; So that if the Alarme be time enough giuen in, how shall any enemie surprise them?

The following Figure, for the layng of a Campe Royall, with the vsuall Fortifications, explayned.

THe former Figure concerning the enquartering of a par­ticular Regiment being already explayned, this in hand, shall need the lesse labour: seeing that euery Regiment or Quarter, hath here the same ground & order, as is before de­scribed. Let it now suffice to tell you, what euery Space and Fortification about the whole Campe meanes: and for the vn­derstanding of that, we desire you to looke vnto the Letters, that euery of them is marked withall.

Signifies the Parad [...]-ing place: whither the Souldiers bee in their courses daily called to bee exercised, for the handling of their Armes.
The Kings Maiesties owne Quarter, where himselfe lyes.
The place for the Artillery, and the Generall of it.
The Common market place for the whole Armie.
The Felt-Marshals Quarter.
The place by him for his Guards and Seruants.
The Generall Major of the Army, his quarter.
The place for his Men and Guards.
The seuerall Regiments, to be devided as in the former Figure.
Squadrons, or halfe Regiments.
The Streetes betwixt the seuerall Quarters: each 50. foote voyd.
The space betweene the Front of the Quarters, and the [Page 88] Trench of the Leaguer, being 200. foote wyde: seruing for the drawing vp of the soldiers, & for the Alarme place.
The space betweene the two innermost lines of the For­tification is called the Parapett or Breast-worke. A Trench of earth it is, cast vp for the fortifying of the Leaguer to keepe the Enemy off from the quarters: being common­ly fiue or sixe foot high, and some two Roodes ouer, or in thicknesse.
The Graffe or wet-mo [...]e vnto the Parapet, which you see full of little pricks: and is vsually as broad as the Parapet.
And whereas you see both Mote and Parapet on each side of the Campe three times led about, making halfe Diamonds as it were; those bee called halfe-Redoubts, or Ravelins, they are marked with R.
The streight line of Moate and Parapet betwixt any of these two, is called the Curtayne, & is marked with S.
Rights against the sharpe point of any of these halfe Re­doubts, you see seuerall passages through the innermost Parapet, which serue for passage to those that are to guard them, & are to fight in them: which passages, are perchance some 50. roods frō one another. They are marked with T.
Outmost of all▪ betwixt the halfe-Redoubts, you see o­ther like sharpe and pointed workes of Earth, with their Motes also about them: which properly be called Rauelins. They are 2. on each side of the Campe & each of them 20. Roodes distant from one another, and are marked with V.

The faces or sides of them, bee about 15. or 16. Roodes long: & are so made, that a right line may on eytheriside or face be drawne to fall vpon the point, where the halfe-Re­doubts & the Curtaines meet. The vse of them, is to guard the 2. Avenues or Gates, which on eyther side of the Lea­guer you see to be open for cōmon passages, both through the Parapet & the Mote: ouer which, there must still lye lit­tle narrow bridges. These Avenues be marked with W.

This is the ordinary Fortification of a Leaguer; besides which, there be Sconces and other workes builded, accor­ding to necessity, & as the nature of the place requireth more or lesse.

[Page 89] The Figure for the Fortification of a [...]

[Page 90] Thus much is likewise further to be knowne. That the more Points these Out-workes haue, the stronger is the piece. This of ours, hath but 6. points: and one of 8. points, is stronger then this: one of ten, stronger then that: and one of 12. points, strongest of all: then which, no stronger figure can possibly be deuised.

If here you looke for the Gates and Ports to the Towne; know, that those are to be made thorough the Halfe-Moones; as you see it marked out in one of them with little Touches or stroakes; directing your eye out of one worke into another: which Gates are not to goe out streight forward: but Win­ding and with Nookes, as the Workes be: which shall both be easier to defend by men placed in euery Corner: and shall keepe the enemy from rushing directly forward vpon the Towne.


THE FAMOVS VICTO­rie of Leipsich, now with severall particulars enlarged; and repeated from the beginning of the Vnion of the K of SVVE­DEN and the Duke of SAXONIE: from whence all that haue written of it, doe beginne it.
The Reader is desired to looke vpon the two Mappes of the Battell, for the better vnderstanding of the storie.

OVI ad pauca respiciunt, de facili pronuntiant, said the wise Historian: They that consider but a few difficulties and objections, are still most readie to deliver their opinion. 'Tis so common to be observed, that it may almost be made the Character of a bad Scholler, to be most sudden and peremptorie in determining of the Que­stion. And truely the same Inditement lies against our over­hastie State-Criticks, that at first dash thinke themselues wise enough to direct the actions of a Prince, or to controule the Consulta'es of a Counsell-Table. Let such bee pleased to know, that the resolutions of a State, must like those of Iustice proceede grauely and slowly, and full of Majestie. Hastie Counsells, bring hastie ruines: rarely shall he that hath once er­red in the warres, liue to commit such another over-sight. Seldome, againe, is the Inside and Reason of State, turn'd outward towards our vulgar Discoursers. Princes know, that secrecie is the shell of businesse: the tendernesse where­of must not by an over-hastie or over-rough handling bee [Page 2] rasht open, till the preciousnesse of the life within, by a kind­ly [...]uritie discloses of it selfe.

All this haue I beene bold to say, for that I the last yeare too often (me thoughts) both read and over-heard, the Pro­testant Princes of Germanie to haue beene blamed, by some such judgements as are before described. What does Saxony and Brandenburg all this while, that they joyne not with the King of Sweden? Others againe (because they judge it fit) were as forward on the other side to report, that they were alreadie joyned: and that full 10. Moneths before ever them­selues resolved upon joyning. Plainly, the Princes of Germa­nie (though they satisfied not these mens expectations) shewd themselues neither fooles nor cowards, in keeping the same distance both with the Emperor, and the King of Sweden, that they did. Nor hath it fallen out the worse for the King.An excuse of the Germane Protestants, for not joy­ning sooner with the King of Sweden. No man knowes, whither by their apparent ma­king the King stronger, at the first, they should haue more set forward his businesse; or haue endangered the putting of him backe, by bringing the vnited forces of the whole Empyre at once upon him: whereas he being thus single and secondlesse, insensibly thrived in his designe; before he was observed by the Emperour, to be more then a weake and a despised enemie. Perchance too, their Defensiue League a­mongst themselues a musing of the Emperour; gained more time and advancement to the King of Sweden, then if they had openly at first sided in with him. Besides these priuate reasons therefore, which haue not come so low as to men of my Forme; these (me thinkes) which my simplenesse could alledge for them, might very fayrely excuse them.

1 Their Resolutions in the Dyet of Leypsich were, sincere­ly to continue their loyalty & obedience towards their Lord the Emperour; till themselues should for not ayding him, be invaded by him.

2. It had beene no wisedome much sooner to haue joy­ned with the King, till either he were strong enough to re­lieue them, or the Emperour so weake, as not to annoy them: neither of which they could yet discover. All the Summer [Page 3] time were the 3. Imperiall Generalls Furstenberg, Altringer, and Fugger, yet in their Countries: nor had the King as yet beaten his way thorough vnto them: for that Tilly still kept in the wind of him, betwixt Pomeren and Saxonie.

3. Had Saxonie by declaring with the King, sooner pro­vokt Tilly to fall vpon him, (either before the taking of Magdenburg, or after) never had the Protestants beene a­ble to haue assisted the King of Sweden.

4. If the maine of their objection still lies against the Duke of Saxonie, (the cheife Engine indeed of all the motion:) they shall find him to haue beene the lesse too blame, if they consider how strongly he was by the other partie laid at: so wrought hee was by another finenesse, that notwithstanding he had beene earnestly enough sollicited by the King, in time to provide for himselfe, by a seasonable declaring on his side; had beene foretold, what would one day come of it: yet be­sides the difficultie that was in it, for him to discover the Toyle he was alreadie gotten into: it had seemed a discourte­sie against all the civilities of Courtship, to haue vpon such termes, broken short off with the Emperour. Flatterie and Protestation (the two Court-Iuglers in ordinarie) had cast such a mist before the Dukes eyes, that it was not easie for him to discover how the Leger-demain was conveyed against him. The Emperours Ambassadour all this while resident with him, had much courted and smooth'd him vp, that his Highnesse services and endeerments to the Emperour, were too many ever to be forgotten. Flattered vp besides he was with that glorious stile, of being the Pillar of the Empire, and the Achilles of Germanie. And as much plyed with warme clothes by some of his owne Councell he was: who though his servants, were yet the Pensioners of the house of Austria. But for all this, could those of other Nations by broad day­light discerne, that the Elector of Saxonie was likely another day to finde no other favour at the Emperours hands, then what Ʋlisses, of old, requested of the Giant Polyphemus, to bee the last man that should bee eaten. This error and danger of his owne, the Duke at length (by the light of his owne [Page 4] Countrey now all on a flame about his eares.) came to haue the sight of: which with a just indignation he in some high termes represented vnto the Emperors Ambassador, at his fi­nall dismissing him from his Court. Then could he discerne, that the kisse which the Ambassador at parting offered to his hand, was but a Iudas kisse, and so was he bold to call it.

Then did he remember also, how little either his owne for­mer intercessions, or those of other Protestant Princes, for a good peace, had hither to beene respected by the Catholikes: and that a many of them had all this while beene of the Duke of Bavaria's opinion, who in the yeare 1620. suffered (and perchance with applause too) this following passage, (and that in publike Oration then made before him, by way of Congratulation for the taking of Prague, and the Proscribing of the Prince Palatine,) to be put vpon our most peaceable Salomon, our well-meaning Nathaniel, King Iames; Inter­cesserat pro Palatino filio, id (que) Oratorum fuco, magnae Britanniae Rex: quos spernendos esse, optimo exemplo docuit serenitas vestra. For the Palatine his sonne had the King of great Britaine in­terceeded by some counterfeit pretences of his Ambassadors: which Ambassadors that they ought to bee dispised, your Highnesse hath taught by an excellent example. Thus much (Isay) did the Duke of Bavaria not onely suffer to bee au­dibly pronounced before him, but publikely to be imprinted also: as if they little cared who knew it, so be they had po­wer to maintaine it. The Duke of Saxonie beginning now to bee more apprehensiue of all this, and perceiving at the same time the Generall Tilly to pinch vpon him; to be already with fire and sword fallen into his Countrey: Sergeant Major Ge­nerall Altringer to bee comming against him by the way of Duringen: and Diepenbach the Field-Marshall, to bee advan­cing out of Silesia; both intending to joyne with Tilly: away is the Lord Arnheym disp [...]ded towards his Majestie of Swe­den; to make humble demaund of his royall assistance. The King now prizing his owne power, and the Dukes need of it, at higher rates then himselfe when he had formerly made proffer of it, would haue beene content to haue afforded it [Page 5] for: delivers these fiue demaunds vnto Arnheym, to be car­ried to his Maister.

1.The vnion be­twixt the D. of Saxonie and the King. That the Elector should consigne over the Towne of Wittenberg into his Majesties hands; both for his passage and retreat.

2. That he should send his Sonne to remaine for hostage in the Kings Armie.

3. That the Elector should presently advance 3. moneths meanes afore-hand, for the payment of the Kings Armie.

4. That the Dukes false Counsellors should bee delivered to the King, or bee punished by himselfe according to their demerits.

5. That the Elector should engage his Faith and Honour to the King, ever to stand prest to adventure both his life and fortunes, yea and his Electorate it selfe in defence of the Re­formed Religion.

To see how mens present necessities can prevaile over the stiffenesse of their former resolutions. Hee that would at no hand treat with the King before, now sends him more satis­faction then hee expected. This was the Dukes answer.

1. That not his Towne of Wittenberg alone, but his whole Countrey was from thence-forth at his Majesties devotion.

2. That he would not onely send his Sonne, but himselfe in person would wait vpon his Majesties Armie.

3. As for making the three moneths pay downe vpon the naile; that he professed himselfe at the instant not able to sa­tisfie his Majestie in: but one moneths meanes hee would presently make tender of; and securitie for the other two.

4. Were but those false Councellors once named unto him, he would himselfe see condigne punishment inflicted upon them.

5. That he was not ready to expend his fortunes, and what ever els he had; but to engage his life for the Religion: pro­mising from that time forth, to sticke most closely unto the King.

This answere being cheerefully, and with much assurance delivered by the Ambassadour, the King sayth, That hee [Page 6] would trie the Duke, whither he were in good earnest or not. Passing his Army therefore over the Bridge of Witten­berg, and leaving a Garrison of his owne within the Towne: to Dieben he goes to meete the Electors of Saxony and Bran­denberg; as in our other booke wee before told you. There was it in private consultation betwixt these three Princes de­liberated;A consultati­on, wherein the King seemes to dis­swade the Battle. whither it were best presently to bid the enemie battle, or to make a longer warre of it. The votes were a little devided at the first. The King (to trie what mettall the Duke was made of) frames some reasons to draw the warre out into length: against which the Duke makes use of these two Arguments.

1.Saxonies Ar­guments for the Battle. That it concerned himselfe speedily to fight, that hee might free as soone as might be, his Subjects and Dominions of the enemie.

2. That it also as much concernd the King too: for that the Countrey now halfe taken by the enemie, was not long able to maintaine two such armies.

That the Duke sourged to the battle, was not, I suppose, because his courage was more then the Kings; but because his necessities were more personall, and more pressing. If he sought not, all were lost; and if hee were overthrowne, all were out lost then: much more honourable besides it was, to dye for his Countrey, in the field, in a braue battle; then to liue the Emperors Bandite or Almes-man for a while; and ei­ther to die without an Epitaph, or haue that of a coward, branded, rather then engraven upon his Tomb-stone. This hanging off of the Kings, drew, no doubt, the Tyes something the straighter, which he before had upon the Duke: enga­ged him (perchance) into some new promises, and priva­ter obligations. Thus did the wise King finely suffer him­selfe to be drawne into the hazard, chiefly upon the oppor­tunity of the Duke: keeping to himselfe the inward content­ment that he found, to see Saxony now so forward; and con­cealing the reason of warre withall,The Battle agreed upon. which privately cald up­on him to hasten the encounter, as much as it did Tilly to deferre it: whom these of his owne side (now the battle [Page 7] is lost) condemne for fighting. Well the Duke of Saxony that had beene thus forward in the advise, would also be as for­ward in the enterprise: For I finde him the first man in the field; which the King was willing to permit also: for besides that it was an honour to the Duke to be the forwardest in fighting for his owne Countrey, the King who (as the pro­verb is) knew well enough how to lead his men; though he droue not the Saxons before him, yet was he the surer of them by having them thus before him.

Much about this time (as the report goes) did the Gene­rall Tilly (out of the fatall bravary of a confident Souldier, and the inevitablenesse of his owne destinie) invite his owne overthrow,Tilly invites the King to fight with him. by a Trumpet sent unto the King, with a mes­sage to this purpose: That as hee was a braue Cavalier, hee should come and giue him a Battle. This low terme of Cava­lier, the Kings heroicall spirit receiving with a just disdaine, (as it is sayd) trampled upon the Letter, thus replying with­all unto the Trumpet: What! doth your Generall thinke mee worthy of no better a style then of a Cavalier? I am a King; and tell him I shall well finde him out. Tilly vpon receit of this message, prepares his Army, as if to accept of a victory, ra­ther then to fight much for it; and very welcome to his men, was the tidings of a pitcht battle: so confident they were of their owne strength (which they counted invincible) and so glad of the oportunity. What sayth the Count of Pappen­heym, (Field marshall unto Tilly,) when he saw the blood prodigiously dropping from the houses at Hall, where hee then was; must wee bleed? will the King of Sweden beare us? that's impossible. Proclamation hereupon is through e­very Quarter of the Leaguer made, that vpon the hearing of certaine warning peeces, every man should repaire to his co­lours and to his order. Some of Tillyes Councell of warre were of opinion, that having fortified their leaguer, it were best to expect the Swedens falling on vpon it, as they had done them at Sweds and Werben. But the most voices and courages prevailed, that it were more honour to meete the enemie in the field, whom perchance they might take vnpro­vided. [Page 8] Vpon the fatall 7. of September therefore being Wed­nesday; the Generall Tilly with full 44000. braue men, first advances from his Leaguer into the field.The place of the battell. The place, was a goodly faire plaine field, (part whereof had beene ploughed) about a mile from the Towne of Leipsich. Part of Tillyes Lea­guer was neere vnto the common burying place without the Citie walls, vsually in Germany called Gods Acre Some haue affirmed it to haue beene the very same place, where the Em­peror Charles the 5th. did heretofore over-throw Maurice then Duke of Saxonie. But this conjecture of theirs, seemes to be contradicted by Sleidan; who assignes the place of that former victory to be, ad silvam Lochanam, the wood of Lo­chan: which they of the Germane Nation, affirme to be nee­rer vnto Hall: 18. or 20. English miles from Leipsich. Vpon this plaine aforesaid, there is a rising ground, a little hill and a wood likewise towards the West: whereabouts (with a fa­tall Omen) the place of execution also is; as you may perceiue described in the first Mappe. Here had Tilly (like a prudent Generall that was carefull for all advantages) at first placed himselfe; the Hill, besides that it served him commodiosly to plant his Canon vpon; was very easie withall for him to descend: but very troublesome on the other side, for the Swedes to climbe vp vnto. The wood served him, both to hide his men in at first, and for a retreat afterwards for them, if they should be put vnto it. The watch word for his Army was Sancta Maria; or as some High Dutch Relations say, Mary the Mother of God. The token to know one another by, was white strings, or ribbands, about their armes and in their helmets: as if they had beene Diademes, and that that day would haue made them all Kings.

The vnion being thus made, and the battell concluded vp­on, betwixt the Kings Majestie of Sweden, and their High­nesses the Electors of Saxonie and Brandenburg; the King having first over-viewed the Armies, vpon Tuesday Sept. 6. commaunds a Bid-day, or day of more solemne prayers throughout every Quarter. The devotions ended; the Ar­my in faire array moved that night from Dieben, (4. Dutch [Page 9] miles from Leipsich) till they came within 2. Dutch miles (some 6. or 8. English miles) of the enemie: where putting out good Guards and watches, they for that night rested. That same night had the King a strange dreame,The King of Swedens dreame. (a divine one no doubt) thus. His Majestie thought in his sleepe, that he had his enemie Tilly fast by the haire of the head, which for all his strugling, he would not let goe, vntill Tilly seemed to bite him by the left side. This vpon the successe of the bat­tell was thus interpreted. That the King should haue the vp­per hand of his enemie; and that Tilly should defeate the Duke of Saxonie, who had the left side and hand of the King in the day of battell. The next morning (being the fatall day Wednesday Sept. 7. (which the Germane Writers call di­em Reginae) they before day light were vpon their march again.The Armies in view one of another. Being come neere to the Village called Scholcka, marked in the Mappe with the letters Ee: they might there discrie the Enemie vpon the advantage of the rising ground, which wee before spake of. Tilly was at first a little decei­ved by his skowtes and Espialls: who vpon the first dis­covering of the Saxon forces in the gray morning, had brought him too hastie word, that the Duke of Saxonie was onely then a comming. By 8. or 9. of the clocke had the Im­perialists a full view of both the Protestant Armies: and Tilly full well knowing of a troublesome passage they were to haue through the bushes and durt at the foresaid Towne of Scholcka; thither sent he some lighter Troupes to disturbe them.Tilly sends to disturb their passage; and the stratagem vsed. These Ʋant-Curriers, besides the skirmishing with which they entertained them; did by setting fire to certaine traines of Gun-powder, purposely scattered on the ground, seeke by the smoake thereof (which the winde at that time blew full into the Protestants faces) to blinde and trouble their putting of themselues into order. But neither did this powder-plot take effect, neither force nor stratagem [...] could at that time serue their turnes; for in despight of both these, is the passage gained: which being once made, the Protestants immediately beginne to marshall themselues into that order, which they had before agreed to fight in. Perceiving the [Page 10] Tillians therefore, to present themselues in a mightie large Front; and the wings of their battell to bee extend [...]d full 2. English miles in length: they to prevent hembing in, (as not willing to accept the kindnesse of an Enemie, to bee brooded vnder his goodly wings, he being a bird of another feather) divide themselues into two Armies. The Duke of Saxonie takes his way towards the left hand, and the King towards the right.The Prote­stants divide into two Ar­mies. The Duke stretched his left wing as long out, as Tilly had done his right; which was as farre as the Towne of Ietzschlitz, in the Southerne edge of the Mappe marked with Ff: the end of Tillyes right wing being betwixt him and the Village of Schausen, here marked with Gg: His right wing he in like manner also stretched out quite over the high way, till it almost touched with the Kings left wing. The King wheeling more about to the right hand, gat the Village of Po­delwitz at his backe, here marked with the letter O. Still as the Armies advanced towards the Enemie, their Ordnance (the loud musicke of a battell) went playing on before them. The Dukes Ordnance, are in the Mappe marked with Hh: The Kings smaller field-peices with P: And his Demie-Ca­non with Q: which were commodiously planted before e­very Division.

The Armie of the Catholike-Leaguers having by a warning peece beene drawne together, before the standing Campe neere Leipsich; were after halfe an houres pause vpon the place, faire and softly caused to advance into the open field. Passing therefore beyond the Villages of Lindenthal, (usually called Linckell) in the right-hand vpper corner of the Map, marked with B: And little Wiederwitz marked with C: And great Wiederwitz marked with D: Tilly advances into the field. And Breitenfield marked with A: From which last Towne some more light horse Troupes being sent abroad for intelligence, the whole Armie fairely followed to the little wood marked with E: and the Gallowes marked with F: Here Tilly making a stand had word brought him, that both the King and Duke were alrea­die gotten over the durtie passage, and were in divided Ar­mies, both vpon their march towards him. Tilly hearing of [Page 11] this newes; Now fellow Souldiers (sayes he) wee must looke for blowes. Resolving therefore to keepe the advantage of that higher ground to fight vpon; hee first of all in severall places causes his Ordnance to bee planted, which are here marked with G: disposing in the next place of the order of his battell. Making choice therefore of the old forme of fighting in great square Bodies, (of which the Mappe shewes you the mightie Fronts onely; so much, namely, as at the joyning of the battels presented it selfe vnto the Swedens view:) he thus marshalls his formidable forces. The whole Armie he divides into three vsuall parts, the maine Battell namely, and the two wings. The right wing was commen­ded vnto Eggon Count of Furstenberg, His order of battell. with those conque­ring Italian Troupes; which since their comming out of Ita­lie, had brought the Circles of Schwaben and Franconia vnder contribution. This right wing is marked with L: and by Furstenberg himselfe, stands the letter M: The left wing, consisting most of the Germane Nation, was commaunded by the Count of Pappenheym; hee whose memorie is yet so deere vnto those of Magdenburg. This wing is knowne by the letter H: and Pappenheyms selfe by the letter I: Vpon this wing was the flower of the Horse placed: because they were to confront the King of Sweden himselfe; with whom they supposed, would come the bravest Souldiers of the Armie. The maine Battell or middle-ward was led by the gallant Tilly himselfe; wherein were his old Wallons and Burgundi­ans, and braver Germane Troupes. These were the credit and strength of his foot-forces. You may know Tillies owne place, by the letter K: set over his head, neere the high wayes side, about the middle of the Mappe. And in this array stood this (by themselues supposed) Invincible Armie, expressing a great deale of desire to be at it.

The King of Sweden vpon the first full view of the Impe­riall Armie, (now within a league of him:) shewing them vnto his owne men, rides from Regiment to Regiment, and from rancke to rancke, with a loud voice asking of his Soul­diers; Come on, Comrades, will you fight to day for the name of [Page 12] Iesus Christ! This question was by the whole Armie pre­sently answered with the Eccho of this joyfull acclamation, Ʋivat Gustavus Adolphus, vive, vive, vive. The King obser­ving the braue resolution of his Souldiers, calls immediately a Trumpet vnto him: to whom he openly delivering a Let­ter, alowd commaunded him to carrie it vnto the Generall Tilly. The King sends a Letter vnto Tilly. This Letter having beene that morning written in the Field, had the King communicated the Contents of, vnto his great Officers: which were; That he desired to see the Gene­rall Tilly in the Feild; and to that purpose he now attended for him.

Tilly vpon receipt of this Letter,Tillyes answer. bad the Trumpet to assure the King his Maister, that he for his part had never refused to fight with him; that he would now meete him halfe way: and that the King well knew where to finde him. These two last passages concerning the Kings speech vnto his Armie, and his Letter vnto Tilly; are written by Chaimaries a French Captaine, that day serving the King of Sweden.

Now began the King to dispose of the array of his Army. Those 18. or 20000. men which he led along with him; he devides, like his enemy, into three parts: and each of these againe into the Vantguard and the Arrierguard.The Kings order of Bat­tell. The Ʋan or Fore-ward of the Right wing, marked with the letter R, his Majesties selfe commaunded: whose place in the Battell you may perceiue by the Letter S. Here were the bravest and best armed Horsemen: and these well lyned with Muskettiers, and guarded with some peices of Ordnance also before them. The proportion of the Muskettiers that lyned the Horsemen, was about 100, to 8 troupes of Horse, sayth Chaimaries, one with another. The Reere or Hinder-ward of the same Right wing, marked with the Letter Z; was committed vnto Sir Iohn Bannier, Generall of the Foote: by whom stand the Letters A a. The left wing, marked with X, was led by the braue Gustavus Horne, Feild-Marshall vnto his Majestie: whom you may finde out by the Letter Y. The Arrier-guard of the same wing was left vnto Colonell Hall: whom you may see at the Letters D d. His troupes were those three [Page 13] Horse-Regiments which you see vnder him; marked with the numbers 87, 88, 89. The Van of the maine Battell or middle-ward, whose character is the Letter T, was commit­ted vnto the sober and valiant Gentleman, the Baron Dyvell: whose place is by the Letter V. This Van consisted of Foote altogether: which being divided into foure Brigades of Pikes and Muskettiers, were ordered bySo doe seve­rall High-Dutch Rela­tions name him: but whe­ther rightly or no, I cannot learne. I ra­ther thinke it should be Ax­el Oxenstiern. Acko, Oxenstiern, Erick Hand, and Winkell, all Colonells. Before this part, you see the Ordnance placed, and immediately behinde it (for the greater strength) are there three Divisions of Scottish Mus­kettiers placed; mingled among twice fiue troupes of Horse, of the Kings owne Guards. The Reere of the same maine Bat­tell knowne by the Letters B b: consisting of three Brigades of Foote, was committed vnto the well tryed Sir Iohn Hep­burne, (commonly called Hebron:) who fought in person in the middlemost of those three Brigades: and is to be found at the Letters C c. The Brigade on the right hand, was led by the yong Count of Turne: and that on the left hand, by Co­lonell Ʋitzthimb, a braue Souldier.

These three Brigades, (wherein some English and many Scots were) were accounted among the best and surest men of the Army: and called The Reserue of the Battell. Behinde these, are two halfe Regiments of Horse, of fiue troupes a­peice; commaunded by Colonell Schaffman, and Col. Coch­titsky.

And this was the Kings admirable order of Embatteling: which you shall much the better please your selfe in the rea­ding of; if you will take the paines but to looke for every thing in the Mappe, as you goe along. A new kinde of Mar­shalling was this vnto Tilly, which as much helped to beate him, as the valour of the men did, that fought in it. Every part of it, consisted of severall Maniples and small Bodyes of men: of which if any one were overthrowne, there was no­thing so much hurt done, as when one of Tillyes greater Bat­taglions were broken: and they might much easier, (by rea­son of the nimblenesse of their motion, and the small space of ground which they tooke vp to moue in) be supplyed by one [Page 14] another. And if the thinnesse of the Files (as being never a­boue six deepe) were not able (tis true) to beare off any great shock or impression; yet by bringing, by that meanes, more hands to fight at once, then the enemies order possibly could doe; they were able on the sudden to doe the more execution. Vpon the sight of it in the Mappe, you will r [...] ­dily make this judgement: That one part so fences, so backs, so flancks one another: is so readie to second, to relieue one another: so apt, eyther to send out succours; or to receiue into their hinder-wards or rancks, any of their former fel­lowes that shall happen to be over-layd: that the whole Ar­my lookes like some impregnable Citie, with its Bastiles, its Towers, its Bulwarks, and severall Retreates about it. So that well may the men be killd; but very hardly shall the whole order be rowted. And of this we haue experience in this Bat­tle: where there was not (that I can finde) any one Regi­ment put to flight, but Collenbachs Horse onely. The lesse marvaile then it is if God with vs, and this order of Embatte­ling, invented by this new (but royall) Captaine: gaue so full an overthrow to the eldest & best Generall of the world. And yet hath the King more of these Formes of Battell inven­ted by himselfe: every one to fit the enemy, the ground, and the occasion.

The Duke of Saxonies Army consisting of 14000. men, and no more, as I am since enformed, (the two Regiments of the Count of Solmes, and the Baron Hoftkirck being sent Towards Bo­hemia as I sup­pose: for I find them to be Governors of Prague after­wards. To wch place they were thought fittest to be sent; as having beene there in the former warres and in the Battell of Prague also: where they then served on the King of Bohemiaes side. away:) was also divided into the Battell & the two wings. The Body or maine Battell, was directed by his Highnesse the Duke himselfe: whose place you know by the Letters K k. Before him stand his great Ordnance; marked with H h. The right wing was led by the valiant Lord Iohn George Arnheym; whose place you may see at the Letters M m. The left wing is to be knowne by the Letters I i: but who commanded there, I finde not expressed. Perchance it might be eyther Bindhauff, Sergeant Major Generall to the Duke; or Swalbach, that day Generall of the Ordnance: for these two were the greatest Officers of the Feild, next vnto Arn­heym [Page 15] the Felt-Marshall.The Duke of Saxonies order. And this was the Saxons order: be­ing the ancient and vsuall manner of Embatteling.

What the severall Numbers, Letters, and Arithmeticall figures in both Mappes meane; wee shall anone tell you, after the description of the victory.

The Watch-word for both these Protestant Armyes, was, GOT MIT VNS, God with vs: and their Tokens, Greene Branches in their hattes or helmets; with which ere night their browes were crowned, as with victorious Lawrells. Ad­vancing in this equipage into the place of Battell; vpon the sayd Plaine, which Tilly had fayrey left for them: behold an Omen, which a Romane Augur would haue esteemed for a most fortunate abodement. Vpon that emptie place of ground whereon the King was to fight, there sate a flocke of birds (which had indeede beene observed there some dayes be­fore, by the Country-men; and to haue fought there too, with another flock,A lucky Omen to the King. then beatten away by them) which birds being sprung by the Kings Vantcurryers, tooke their flight directly towards Tillyes Armie: and there fetching a circle about (and that also would the Romanes haue accounted for a happie presage) they turned againe towards the Kings Ar­mie: as who would say, we went to fetch you victory. & Another to the Duke of Saxony.

The Duke of Saxony had another good encouragement to his Army also: a milke-white Doue, namely, hovering very lowe, and almost sitting vpon a Cornet or Horsemans En­signe: which also setcht a circuite afterwards, about the Dukes Army. But the King had a better Augury on his side, then a flight of birds: His Motto or Watch-word, God with vs: and that which the Romane Generall sometimes preferred before the birds, Romano milite dignus, Ensis adest augur: his valour▪ namely, and his Sword.

Being now readie to come vnto the shock,The Battells joyne. Army to Ar­my; some strugling there was at first for the winde: which then blowing from the West, was full in the Imperialists backe, and the Protestants faces. This advantage the King being desirous to recover, and the enemy as eager to keepe, and both sides wheeling about for that purpose; not onely [Page 16] the Horsemen had some Skirmishes together, but the Foote also came to push of Pike.

In this heaving and shoving too and againe,Some strug­ling for the winde. the King with some part of his right wing wheeling about from O towards A; that is, from the village of Podelwitz, towards Breiten­feild; edging still along to recover some poynt of the West: had with much adoe gotten vp the hill, something neerer to­wards the little wood, where part of Pappenheyms men lay: who in striving to keepe the winde, was forced to come vn­der the commaund of the Kings Ordnance. The Imperialists every where had very commodiously also planted some pei­ces of Canon vpon the hills-side: which made it a desperate peice of service for the Swedes, directly in the enemies faces, to ascend; yea, the higher ground it selfe was something troublesome to mount also: which they made the lesse hast to doe, because they were not fully yet in order. The Fight was about twelue a clock begunne with their great Ord­nance. Tilly on his side gaue fire to the first three peices: which did little or no hurt vnto the Swedens: The Fight be­gun with great Ordnance. and the King (as his manner is) put his Linstock to the two first peices: which notwithstanding it was done at something a farre di­stance, and therefore laught at by the enemy, as if the Royall Canonier durst haue come no neerer: yet (as the Kings owne Printed Relation sayes,) they vndoubtedly hit their marke. Tilly from his Battell playd hard vpon the King, with three halfe Curtoes or halfe Canons especially: which were againe answered with as much fury. The hideous roare of the Ca­non on both sides, made the very earth to tremble; and con­tinuing for two houres together, made many a braue man to groane his last. The Imperialists shot diverse artificiall fire­workes, and Granadoes also; whereof some being old, and their touch-holes rustie, did not breake in the fail: so that having done no hurt, they were taken vp whole afterwards. Tillyes Ordnance (whereof he had some very great peices) did most hurt vpon the Kings left wing, where Gustavus Horne commaunded.

The thunder of the Canon about two a clocke gaue quite o­ver. [Page 17] At which time the Count of Pappenheym with the Horse of his left wing, giues the first charge vpon the Kings right wing.

The Duke Adolphus of Holsteyn was the first that seconded the Horse,Pappenheym charges the King in the right wing. with his Regiment of Foote: who, whilest toge­ther with the Horse, he wheeled too hastily about to recover the whole advantage of the wind from the King, (one poynt whereof the King had with much adoe gained:) both Horse and Foote were so farre advanced before their fellowes, that they were even parted from the rest of their left wing. These having too rashly engaged themselues by the eares with the Kings Horse, found themselues so galled by the Muskettiers, with wch the Kings Horse-troupes were lyned, (which they there little looked for: by reason the Muskettiers being our-commanded men could not at first be discerned, because they had no Colours with them) that they were quickly made to get them further off. Traversing thereupon their ground about to the left hand; and thrusting in betwixt the Kings right wing,The D. of Hol­stein charges Bannier in the Reere of the right vving. and the maine Battell; they there fell fowle vpon the Reere of the Kings right wing, where the Generall Ban­nier commaunded. After them, the King immediately sent some able troupes; which both vtterly separated them from the rest of their fellowes, and cloased them in withall: so that betwixt them and Bannier; they were (as the Baron of Cro­nenberg writes) vtterly cut in peices. The Duke of Holsteyn receiving a shot in the knee,The Duke of Holstein taken prisoner. was at that instant taken priso­ner: of which wound he within few dayes after, dyed at Ei­lenburg.

The rest of Pappenheyms Foote being thus deprived of the most of their Horse, and not succoured time enough by Tilly with his Battell; was with the lesse trouble afterward defea­ted by the Kings Right wing.Pappenheyms left vving de­feated. Here was Pappenheyms selfe wounded; made to forsake the Feild, and to leaue all his Ord­nance behinde him.

The King in the beginning of the fight perceiving the ene­my to charge very hardly upon his men;The King a­lights to pray. alighting (as Dan. Heinsius in his Panegyrick affirmes) from his horse; prayes [Page 18] vpon his bended knees vnto God for the victory: imitating herein the godly Emperour Theodosius, who did as much in a day of Battell.

The Generall Tilly perceiving it to goe hard with his left wing,Tilly charges Gustavus Horn in the left wing. drawes with his Battell from about the little Wood; and downe the hill he comes. With him was the chiefe strength of the Foote; old Souldiers the most of them: though never so well beaten Souldiers, as that day they were. Sixteen braue Regiments there were of them; and those di­vided into foure great Spanish Brigades; their Horsemen al­so, on both sides, proudly prancing vpon their flancks. Right opposite vnto him, was Gustavus Horne with his left wing: vpon him therefore Generall Tilly instantly sets; vpon him he twice or thrice charges with great bravery: which char­ges, Horne with as much resolution both endures & returnes. Tilly at length finding himselfe shrewdly rubbed thereabouts with the lyning of the Swedish Horse-troupes, and some smal­ler Drakes and Feild-peices withall: beginnes on the sudden to turne his whole order; so that leaving a part of his Battell of Foote, and the most of his Horse to hold Gustavus Horne play: he converts all his fury vpon the Duke of Saxony. With Tilly and his Battell,Tilly and Fur­stenberg both together fall vpon the Sax­ons, did the Count of Furstenberg at the same time peice in, with his left wing also: so that all the Duke of Saxonies Armie (excepting some few of Arnheyms in the Right wing, which stood next vnto the Swedens left wing:) were at once engaged. Two or three Charges the Saxons endured well enough; but the westerly Winde carry­ing the smoake & dust full into their eyes, and Tillyes weigh­tie bodies of his Spanish Brigades, falling too heavily vpon the new-levyed Saxons: and vpon the Dukes owne Guards e­specially (amongst which himselfe fought) that not able longer to endure the fury of the old Wallons, Germanes, and Burgundians; they beginne to giue ground a little at the first: and to run quite away a little after. Furstenberg in like man­ner prest so hard vpon the Dukes left wing; that they pre­sently followed the example of their Countreymen;and rowt them. and di­strusting their Armes, committed themselues as fast as could [Page 19] be vnto their heeles. Steynau a Saxon-Colonell of a Horse-Regiment, was with foure Cornets there taken prisoner by Furstenberg, who at last when his keepers beganne to be o­verthrowne, apprehending the presentnesse of the advantage brake loose, and assisted those of his owne side. And here was the Lord Bindauff Sergeant-Major Generall vnto the Duke of Saxony slaine, before the Baron of Cronenbergs Regiment: as that Baron writeth. Thus the most of the Saxon Foote, and many of their Horse, were either slaine, taken prisoners, or fled the Feild: leaving all their fayre Ordnance to the mer­cy of the enemy: who presently after, beganne to turne those Peices vpon the Swedens. But as if it had not beene shame e­nough, thus fowly to haue left the Feild; they were no soo­ner out of the reach of the enemy, but they fell to pillage their owne Wagons by the way: that so they might at least seeme to be Conquerours; in carrying home the Spoyles of the warres, though not of their enemies.

The Imperialists now seeing the Saxons fleeing,Newes of the Victory carri­ed to the Em­perour. cry, Ʋicto­ria, victoria, follow, fellow, follow: but the old Lad their Gene­rall quickly countermaunded that, saying, Let them goe, wee shall overtake them time enough: but let vs beate the Swedes too, and then all Germany is our owne. But so good was this newes, that some Posts are presently dispeeded away towards the Emperour at Ʋienna, with the most welcome tydings of Vic­tory: Some Cornets of the Saxons being there shewed, and some scornefull and disgracefull words among, being added against the Duke of Saxony.

The most of the Saxons being thus rowted; Arnheym (as tis sayd) still made good the place. With him, were the best of the Dukes Horse; and the best of them too, the Dukes own Horse-guards, that day commaunded by Leiftenant-Colonell Tauben, a valiant Gentleman. Eight troupes he had besides, of Duke William of Saxon-Altenburg: together with some of the Countrey-Gentlemens, and of his owne.

The most of these (as I sayd) had Tilly slipt by, with a touch onely vpon them. Hereabouts fell there out a prettie encoun­ter, worthy not to be overpassed.A single Combate. Thus▪ A gallant Imperiall [Page 20] Cavalier perceiving a Saxon, Rit-maister or Captaine of a troupe of Horse, to behaue himselfe brauely in the head of his troupes; presently putting spurres vnto his Horse and ryding vp vnto him, bends his Pistoll vpon him; and engages him in a single combate. The Saxon would not giue it off neyther: but there their Horses being shot vnder them, too it on foote they goe with sword and pistoll. Both (to be briefe) are there slaine; and both, (as their destinies directed it) fell downe dead together, one vpon another: and Death, who having beene at so many Duells, knowing himselfe now able enough to judge who had best done; gaue the honour of it vnto the Saxon-Champion, by laying him vppermost in the fall. And there still lay he vpon his enemy; as if he meant to follow him into the next world, and to fight with him there too: and even the pangs of death fluttering their armes about, and their dying pulses punching one at another; made that seeme like another combate. The losse of bloud having also made their faces look pale; that colour of anger made a shew, as if their vnappeased spirits had beene yet at it.

While Tilly and Furstenberg were in action with the Sax­ons, those Horse which he (as hath beene sayd) left in fight with Gustavus Horne; came not so victoriously off from the Swedes, as their Generall had done from the Saxons. This action, Gustavus Horne himselfe, thus writes of. All their Horse (sayth he) fell vpon my left wing;Gustavus Horn defeates those that chargd him. who were soone dispersed and put to flight: and contrarily the Duke of Saxo­nies Foote, almost left the Feild.

Whilest yet the enemy pursued the Saxons, our left wing charged into their flanck, and vpon their two troupes of Re­serue: and in this posture we fought a long time, and lost ma­ny of our Horse. But finally after I had soundly charged the enemies Battell with that Regiment of the Gothish Horse, which his Majestie sent me for assistance: together with the commaunded Muskettiers which had beene placed by the King in the left wing: the enemy beganne to grow thinne and to fall away; whereupon their Battayle presently broke; being all put to flight, excepting foure Regiments: who by [Page 21] reason of the smoake and dust were so shadowed from our sight, that they saved themselues. Thus farre this conque­ring penne writeth.

Those that Horne thus overthrew; were one or two per­chance, of those foure great Brigades belonging to Tillyes maine Battayle. So that there yet remaines the rest of them which were peiced in with Furstenbergs left wing; whom we are next to enquire after.

The Earle of Furstenberg having sorely raked the Saxons, and charged quite thorough them; was with his owne Regi­ment thus in the heate of bloud and valour, quite parted from the rest of his owne wing. Supposing therefore his dayes worke to be done with the Saxons, whom the rest of his men had put to flight: he with his owne Regiment of foote, flyes amaine vpon the Swedens againe.Furstenberg charges the Reere of the Swedens left vving: It was the Reere of the left wing, which was then next before him, that he now chanced vpon. There did Colonell Hall, a braue Gentleman Command. Hall having there a Regiment of twelue troupes of his owne Horse (whose place in the Mappe is at 88.) Charges (sayes Chaimaries; Is defeated & wounded by Hall: who is slaine himselfe also. that was one of his Captaines in another Foote. Regiment that Hall had) into the Imperiall Foote; and with not much labour, cut them all in peices. And here, I suppose, it might be, that the Count of Fursten­berg was wounded: whence being carryed off sorely spoy­led, he was reported to haue beene slaine: but of that, we are otherwise since enformed. Nor did Colonell Hall come off clearely with his victorie; for by default of his brest-plate (which was not of full proofe) he was slaine by a Musket-Bullet vpon the place.

It seemes that Hall had followed Furstenberg, even vnto the poynt of the left wing of the Kings Armie: because that Chaimaries presently subjoynes, That his Colonell (Hall) was seperated in this fight from the rest of the Army; excep­ting from the braue Cavalier Colonel Collenbach; with whom (sayth he) I was. Now Collenbachs place in the Battell, the Mappe shewes to be in the end of the left wing: where he hath fiue troupes of Horse, at the number 57. and fiue more, [Page 22] at the number 59: So that Chaimaries place must needs be at the number 58: where he was one of those Foote-Captaines that led those 360. Muskettiers of Halls men, which at that time lyned Collenbachs Horse, which were 800. in number: in which very place, Chaimaries sets himselfe, in a Mappe of the Battell drawne by his owne hand; which came over with his Letter. This enquirie helpes vs to know, whereabouts the chiefe of the Encounter at that time was: wherein you may satisfie your selfe, by looking into the Mappe. No soo­ner were Furstenbergs Foote defeated; but 7000. or 8000. of those Imperialists that had discomfited the Saxons; were dis­covered vpon the place where the Saxons had beene lately Marshalled. The dust and smoake were so great, that they were vpon Collenbach ere he was aware: and yet as neere him as they were, not being able to discerne their Colours; he knew not whether they were friends or foes. The same doubt possesses the Imperialists also; who being so neere Col­lenbach, never offered so much as to charge him: imagining, perchance, that he might be some of their owne maine Bat­taile, which Gustavus Horne had thereabouts of late defeated. At last (sayes Chaimaries) my minde gaue me that they were enemies; yea I told Collenbach that they were not our men. And by this time had the enemy disc [...]rned vs too: whereup­on turning two peices of Ordnance vpon vs, which they had taken from the Duke of Saxony; they let flie amongst vs. Iust at this time came the King ryding vp vnto vs, crying to Collenbach, Charge, man, a Gods name: whereupon his Ma­jesties owne selfe led vs on against the enemy; saying, That he must finish the worke that wee had begunne: Collenbach there­upon advancing, (and the King going away to looke to other places) is presently encountred with ten Cornets of Horse, who at the first or second Charge, slew all his Officers and Cornets, that commaunded before foure of his troupes upon the right hand of his Regiment:Col Collenbach slaine by the Imperialists. yea the Colonell Collenbach himselfe was there shot dead vpon the place; all his Horse of the foure troupes aforesayd, fleeing thereupon. The Impe­rialists who had the smoake in their eyes, discerned them not: [Page 23] but I (sayes Chaimaries) discerning the enemy, commaun­ded all my Muskettiers to giue fire at once vpon them.The same Im­perialists row­ted by other of Collenbachs men. They thereupon wheeling about to the left hand, were entertained by the other foure Cornets of Collenbachs Regiment: who gaue them so couragious a Charge, that they draue them e­ven to the gates of Leipsich. Thus much writes Chaimaries of the actions of that part of the Battell, where himselfe ser­ved.

The King of Sweden having (as hath beene sayd) set on Collenbach; goes, (like a noble Generall, who thinkes it his office to see to all) to visite his three Brigades of Reserue in the Reere of the maine Battayle; where the valiant Hebron commaunded. Bringing therefore some 100. or more of the better sort of prisoners, which himselfe with the right wing had before taken▪ he for the encouragement of his men, makes a shew of them; still cryingThat is, lusti­ly, valiantly. Allegremente as he rode along: vive, cry the Souldiers. At which cheerefulnesse of his men the King very heartily laughing; led them on to­wards those 7. or 8000. of the enemy, before mentioned; not making a stand, vntill he came within halfe Musket of them. These were part of those men, who, as I sayd, had de­feated the Duke of Saxony. Towards whom the King now ryding very neere; comes backe vnto his men with newes, That he saw the Burgundian Crosse. Sending therefore the Ba­ron Dyvell vnto Sir Iohn Hebron to commaund him to fall on with his three Brigades of Reserue; himselfe hasts away to the neerest part of the maine Battaile, where Colonell Winc­kle with the Bl [...]w Regiment stood, to send him to ayde He­bron also. Scarcely had this braue Baron Dyvell delivered the Kings message;Baron Dyvell slaine. but he was shot starke dead, when he was gone a little to the right hand, even before Hebrons eyes, and feete, as it were. Vpon this command of the King, Sir Iohn Hebron with the middlemost of the three Brigades, Sir Iohn He­bron charges Tilly. and Co­lonell Vitzthimb with his other on the left hand; moved for­ward towards the enemy. But the young Count of Turne, who had the third and right hand Brigade (which was the furthest from the danger) he (as I am enformed) stirred not. [Page 24] Whether he misunderstood the message, or what els should be the reason of it, I know not. Thus much onely can I en­forme my Reader; that he is not sonne to the braue old Bo­hemian Count of Turne, nor like vnto him. On the right hand of Sir Iohn Hebrons Brigade, was the valourous Scottish Colo­nell Lumsdell: who with the Lord Reayes men, and his owne, helpt to make up Hebrons Brigade complete: the most of the other part of it (of Sir Iohns owne Regiment) being of the Germane Nation. On the right hand of Lumsdell againe, had the King caused Sir Iames Ramsey with his chosen or out­commaunded Muskettiers, also to fall on. The first of Lums­dells Muskettiers, were led on by his Lieutenant Colonell Muschamp, our daring and valiant Countryman: who with much courtesie related this whole passage, thus vnto mee. First (sayth he) giving fire vnto three little Feild-peices that I had before me, I suffered not my Muskettiers to giue their volleyes, till I came within Pistoll-shot of the enemy: at which time I gaue order to the three first rancks to dis­charge at once; and after them the other three: which done, we fell pell mell into their rancks, knocking them downe with the stocke of the Musket, and our swords. The enemy, notwithstanding wee were alreadie within their ranckes, gaue vs two or three Salvees with their Muskets: and at our first falling on, foure gallant troupes of Curiassiers advancing themselues before their owne foote, and comming close vp to the head of our Pikes; at one volley or two of their Pi­stolls, shot all the Scottish Ancients dead vpon the place;Diverse Scot­tish Ancients slaine at once. So that strange it was to see, how so many Colours fell at one instant into the feild. And our men, I thinke, payd theirs as wel [...] home againe.

A braue Commaunder of theirs, all in scarlet and gold-lace there was right before vs; whom we might discerne to lay on vpon his owne mens pates and shoulders; to cut and slash divers of them with his sword, because they would not come on vpon vs. This Gentleman maintained the fight a full houre, and more, against vs; but he being slaine, wee might perceiue their Pikes and Colours to topple downe, to [Page 25] tumble and fall crosse one over another:Lieutenant Colonel Mus­champ with the Scots of my Lord Reayes and Colonel Lumsdel men, defeats those that they were sent against. whereupon all his men beginning to flee, wee had the pursuite of them, even vntill the night parted vs. Few of the Imperiall Officers and Commanders escaped either killing or spoyling; as one Cap­taine Onyon an English-man (who had the leading that day of 1000. Muskettiers on the Emperours side,) affirmed. Onyon himselfe was thrice shot the same day; taken and carried pri­soner into Leipsich: where he afterwards related this vnto Lieutenant Colonell Muschamp: to which Lieutenant-Co­lonels courtesie for my vnderstanding of this part of the ser­vice of the day, (wherein himselfe was a principall Leader) the Readers are beholding.

Sir Iohn Hepburn, Sir Iames Ramsey, Colonell Vitzthimb, and Colonell Lumsdell with their foote; and the Bohemian Colonells Schaffman and Cochtitsky with their horse; all wheeling about in manner of an halfe moone, (as the second Mappe shewes you,) so well at the same time plyed their bu­sinesse; charged with so much bravery and resolution at first; and maintained the fight with so much courage and manhood to the last; that in this part also, though the Imperialists be­haved themselues right valiantly; yet were they forced to yeeld vnto the fortune of the day, as in other places of the field, their fellowes had done before them. For at this time, the Lord Arnheym with his Saxon-horse fell so resolutely on vpon their Reere, and the Scottish and Germane foote, vpon their Van; and those other troupes which the King sent in from the left wing and maine Battayle, vpon their flanck: that the remainder of Tillyes great Spanish Brigades, and of Furstenbergs left wing, were gotten into a Toyle, as it were; and so jumbled and jolled together, that wanting roome to fight and order themselues to their best advantage in;Hebron de­feats Tilly. they were miserably cut in peices, put to as great a slaughter them­selues, as they before had made among the Saxons. Nor was there a greater fell of men, any wherethat day made through­out the Armie, nor any peice of the service, better on both sides maintained. And here (I suppose) was that famous stra­tagem put in practise by the Muskettiers; who all on the sud­den [Page 26] doubling of their rancks, making their Files then but three deepe: and the first ranck, falling vpon their knees, the second stooping forward, and the third standing vpright; and all giving fire together▪ they powred so much leade in at once amongst the enemies, that their rancks were much broken by itThis report made here at first by a Gen­tleman that was sent by the King of Sweden, vnto our Kings Majestie; I haue since found to be confirmed in Dan: Heinsius his Panegyrick written vnto the King of Sweden: who sayes that the Foote that did this service, advanc't them selues before their owne Horse; who it seemes charged presently in vpon it, vpon the enemy. Yea the King himselfe vses to exercise his Souldiers to these postures.. Arnheym on the other side, with his Saxon-horse, did much execution vpon the enemies foote: who had few or no Horse at this time and in this place left, to oppose against him. And here by all probabilitie it was, that the Ge­nerall Tilly received his wounds: and was supposed (though vnknowne) to haue been prisoner for a while vnto the Kings Armie. But this I cannot affirme.

Among other Commanders of the Imperialists that fought at this time, in this very place; these three I finde particular mention of. The Earle of Schomberg, that day Generall of the Ordnance; the Baron of Cronenberg, and the Lord of Baum­garten: so that these surely, were none of the meanest troupes, that were led by such honourable personages. Something al­so of what was here done by the Imperialists; we may learne by the sayd valiant Baron of Cronenbergs Letter. In foure houres (sayth Cronenberg) I charged the enemy foure times with my Regiment: judge you whether we were not at hot service, in so much that I verily beleeved that I had defeated my enemy, and that the victory was ours: I not knowing that our left wing was so miserably defeated. And this mistake was by reason of the great smoake; for we could not possibly see aboue foure paces before vs. The enemy had possessed themselues of the place whereon our left wing was defeated: I then went vp into the very face of them, even in that quar­ter where they brought many fresh Cornets of Horse, and some Regiments of foote to charge me. The whole Armie doth know, yea and our Generall himselfe will witnesse it, that but for me, our Generall had beene lost: whom I percei­ving grievously hurt,Tilly wounded and thought to be prisoner. carryed safely off in despight of all the enemies. There was a Duke of Saxony that day serving on the Emperours side, who behaved himselfe like a Lyon: who when all was lost, came with our Generall, and two or three [Page 27] Horsemen onely in his company, into my Regiment, I being then in full battell.

Thus much writes the Baron of himselfe, modestly: for from other hands wee haue also received it, how that when Rodolph Maximilian Duke of Saxon-Lawenburg, Tilly rescued, and carryed out of the field. had by his valour and hardinesse rescued and fetcht off his Generall; that the valiant Cronenberg carried them both out of the feild, in the middest of his owne, now flying troupes.

Thus by knowing of Cronenbergs place; we finde where the Generall Tilly at this time was: and that it was Sir Iohn Hebron that overthrew him. For this valour and faithfulnesse to their Generall, was the Baron Cronenberg much honored: and the Duke afterwards entrusted with the keeping of the key of Bavaria; the Towne of Donawaert I meane: from whence the King of Sweden did of late dayes beate him.

The King having set on Sir Iohn Hebron vpon Tilly; The King with his right wing, charges those in the Wood. and returned by this time to his owne Right wing; presently ad­vances forward with that towards the wood vpon the hill, which Tilly had before appoynted for the Retreate of his men: because that hereabouts some Regiments had all this while stayed, and others, that had beene rowted in other pla­ces, had hitherto resorted; here to r'allee and conjoyne them­selues together againe. To conjoyne themselues together I say: for whereas I finde foure of these Regiments now got­ten about the Wood, to be those of Goies, Blanckhart, Chesui, Balderon and Diderichsteyn, (which last two made vp one Regiment:) any man may by the numbers in the Mappe per­ceiue, that these foure were placed very farre asunder in the beginning of the Battell: even as farre as the numbers 8, 12, 15, and 19, are one from another. And this is an argument of the great confusion they had beene put vnto in the battell; as others likewise had beene in the former fight, which Tillies selfe had made: where Baumgartens Regiment which had beene at first marshalled neere the very end of the left wing, at the number 4; was now conjoyned with Schomberg and Cronenberg, whose first place was in the further end of the right wing, at the numbers 26, and 27: and both these from [Page 28] the ends of both wings, conjoyned with Tilly, in the middle­ward or mayn-battayle. But to the story. The King now-in person setting vpon these new revnited forces, with such courage and successe charges in vpon them; that at the first onset cutting in peices those troups that had the guard of the Ordnance, and then turning the Canon vpon the residue: he had the slaughter of a great many of them; and the rowting of as many more. Yet all fled not: for the Goiesish, Blanckhartish, Chesuish, and Balderonish Regiments, before mentioned; stood to their Armes brauely. Old Lads they were, and ex­perienced Souldiers too; such as feared not an enemy with an iron face, and that cared not for a halfepenny chop in their owne flesh. These, to their great prayse (as the Kings owne description of the Battell sayes) made good the wood for a long time against his Majestie, killd him a many of braue fel­lowes.& overthrowes them. Nor would they budge a foote; for notwithstanding they were now desperate and out of hope to be eyther secon­ded or fetcht off, (all their Armie being by this time over­throwne, and they knwoing of it) yet did they fight it out almost to the last man: a few of them onely (whom it had beene pittie to haue killed) retrying themselues when no more could be done; vnder the benefit of a mixed Cloud, of smoake, and dust, and darkenesse. For by this time it was neere vpon seaven a clocke at night: by which houre the Im­periall Army every where was altogether in disorder, flight, and confusion.

Thus after fiue houres hard fight,The victory. the victory fell vnto his Majestie of Sweden: whose Horsemen so long continued the chase; vntill the darknesse made it dangerous to pursue the enemy any further. The Tillians fled every way; some to Leipsich; others to Eilenburg, and the Townes thereabouts; and others towards Hall: every man glad to hide his head any where. The joyfull retreate being sounded thereupon, the Kings Armie, as Maisters of the Feild, kept their possessi­on of it; though but by lying vpon the bare ground, and vn­der the blew Skyes for that night. Conquerours, surely, had beene worthy of a better harbourough; but the vniversall [Page 29] joy, suffered no man (but the wounded) to complaine of the want of a featherbed.

The next morning was the chace begunne againe;The Chace. when the over-taken enemies, wanting eyther Leaders, or Armes, or hearts; must suffer the Law of Armes to passe vpon them: eyther to begge quarter, or endure the slaughter.

And this was the end of that formidable Armie of his Im­periall Majestie, and of the Catholike Leaguers; which for e­leven yeares together before the comming of the King of Sweden, had given the Law vnto all Germany, had made the name of Tilly so renowned. All the ill-gotten wealth, and fore-gotten glory of it, was in poore fiue houres space, (such is the fortune of the warres) now quite lost and confounded. This, I say, was the end of it. Nine or 10000. men, were left dead in the field and chase; many thousands sorely wounded; whereof some shortly after dyed, and others thereby vtter­ly made vnserviceable: Diverse were taken prisoners; and 6000. forsaking the side, tooke oath and pay, for the Kings service; not a few, besides, running quite away, and never more returning to their Colours.

Thus of 44000. marching men, Tilly never came to Mu­ster 16000. againe: perchance not so many; yea perhaps not halfe so many of the selfe same men; at leastwise not halfe so many of the Foote; who could not so fast followe their fleeing Generall, towards the Weser. The King this morning marching towards Leipsich; there seased vpon the enemies whole standing Camp. Here were found full 3000. Wagons, with all their baggage, tents, and pavilions: a great number of Cattle, Horses, Oxen, Sheepe, Asses, Poultrie, Bread, Wine, meate vpon the Spits, with other necessary provisions: much costly stuffe, with some gold and silver; both in vessell and readie money. There were many aboue 100. Ensignes and Cornets brought vnto the King, with 14. great peices of halfe Curtoes, or Demicanon; and 16. smal­ler feild-peices, of 8. or 10. pound ball: some whereof had the Armes of the Emperour vpon them; others of the Duke of Bavaria, of Wallensteyn, the Palsgraue, the Elector of Brandenbnrg, the Duke of Brunswicke, &c.

[Page 30] And thus haue we told you something of what was done in every part of the Battayle. The foure great Brigades of Foote in the Van of the Kings mayn Battayle, were thought too strong to be medled withall; the Imperialists therefore never fell on there. Nor did any part of them, nor of their after-troupes, (those I meane, betwixt the Battayle and the Reserues of it) once moove: onely the King commaunded some troupes to goe and ayde Hebron once. Nor did the Count of Thurne stirre. Nor was the further end of Banniers people medled withall; els the whole Armie was in action.

The King of Sweden lost butSepting [...]nto­rum. 700. men (as Gallobelgious reports) and the Duke of Saxony, 2000. The men of note slaine on the Kings side,Slaine on the Kings side On the Sax­ons. were the gallant Baron Dyvell, Hall, Collenbach, and Corville, all Colonells. Slaine on the Duke of Saxonyes part, Sergeant-Major-GenerallHe was Feb. 29. following, very honora­bly buryed at Torgau. Bindhauff, Co­lonell Starschedel: with diverse other Officers and Captaines, both of Horse and Foote.

On Tillyes side, these great personages slaine; Adolphus, Duke of Holsteyn, Otho Fredericke, Count of Schomberg, that day Generall of the Ordnance; Theodore Othmar of Erwitte, Sergeant-Major-Generall of the Armie; the Lord Baumgar­ten, Baron of Grotte; together with Coloredo, Gallas, Wallen­steyn, On Tillyes. Lobell, and Zabilli, all Colonells: with diverse other Lieutenant-Colonells, Sergeant-Majors, Rit-maisters, and Captaines; slaine eyther vpon the place, or dying within a few dayes after, or their wounds. Taken prisoners, the Ge­nerall-Adjutant Zinzindorff; the two Imperiall Comissaries-Generall, Walmerde and Graff; with Coronino, Blackhart, Barcelli, Kratz, Hazelung, Larme, Klinzi, and Winckleman, all Colonells: together with Bernard, that was Secretary and Treasurer vnto Tilly; diverse Captaines, and some Iesuites; who (no doubt) came thither to blesse the Armie.

And this was as complete a victory,The complet­nesse of the Victory. as possibly could be gotten. Not stolen by night; which Alexander scorned: but without stratageme, by fine force and true prowesse, at­chieved in the broad day-light, betwixt twelue and seaven in the afternoone. No advantage of place to giue it away: [Page 31] it was vpon a fayre levell, and in Campagnia. No casuall ad­vantage but was against the King: the winde, the wood, and the higher ground, all on the enemies side. No advantage in numbers, or reputations of men, neyther; Tillyes were the more, the older Souldiers; and their Armie by themselues accounted Invincible. Nay, one disadvantage the King had, as great as possibly almost could be; which was, in sight, not onely a wonderfull encouragement to the enemy, but a most mayne weakning of the one halfe of his Majesties Ar­my, and an evident disheartning to the rest: for seeing tis the Eye that is first overcome in any battell, if the sight of the Saxons defeate would haue discouraged the Swedens; that had given a sore onset to the victory. So that all the advan­tages lay on the enemies side; and the disadvantages on the Kings. But yet even thus can the Lord of Hoasts giue away the victory.

Tillyes manly heart,Tilly excused. tis sayd, could not refraine his teares, when hee saw his braue old Souldiers thus going to ruine. The whole fault, he layd vpon the Crabats & Imperiall horse: who after a few hard charges, cowardly ranne away, and ne­ver made head againe. No Generall could haue done more, than the valiant Tilly that day did; nor would any wise man (that were no more than truely valourous) haue stood one minute longer vpon the place, from whence the Generall Tilly ranne away. But there is no Battell against the Lord; So that this old Conquerour, still vsed to see the backs of his enemies; is now glad to shew them his owne heeles: and thus wounded as he was, to flee that night towards Hall, se­ven Dutch myles from the place of Battell. Hither did the Earles of Furstenberg, and Pappenheym, both sorely wounded, also come vnto him:Tilly flees. where having dressed their wounds, the two Ea [...]les the next day fled away in a hackney Coach, hy­red at Hall, and Tilly by himselfe in a Horse-litter: all taking their way towards Ascherleben and Halberstadt first; and thence onwards towards the River of Weser; where the Em­perour had given him some Lands; and whereabouts he had formerly beene, when he first advanced against the King of [Page 32] Sweden. Tilly had in the fight received two (some say, three) severall wounds vpon his body; besides a shrewd brush or counterbuff with the stock of a Musket given him by a com­mon Souldier; which being aymed full at his head, notwith­standing that the old man bare off as well as he could with his feeble arme; yet so rudely for all that, did it light vpon the side of his necke, shoulder, and arme, that the poore man complained more of that blow, than of any of his other wounds.Tilly againe excused. The Souldier that reacht it him, was immediately beaten downe dead vpon the place: that so meane a man might never liue to glory, what he had done to the gallant Generall Tilly. Sure it is, that Tilly had his wounds dressed by the Towne-Barber of Hall: In the Booke called Arma Succi [...]a, p. 163 tis affirmed, That Perus [...], Governour of Gripswald had his body hard­ned with such charmes: and that the first bullet did not peirce him: yet the second payd him home. Tis so famili­ar a practise, that Souldiers make no que­stion of it. See, if you please, what we haue be­fore written in the descrip­tion of this Battell, in our First part of the Intelligen­cer. and a report was raysed vpon it, that the fellow should haue afterwards discovered vnto the King, at his comming vnto Hall, that Tillyes bodie was as hard as the wall; that he was hard-shot, or shot-free; and that the Bullets had not peirced the flesh, but made bruises rather in it: and that to his horrible torture, he was faine to endure the cutting out of the bruised flesh, vnto the very hard bone. Indeede thus much haue I seene in a High-Dutch prin­ted Relation, That Tillyes wounds did not peirce the flesh. But this (in charitie) had I rather ascribe vnto his bruise, than vnto the Pistoll-shots that he received: or rather, that the re­port was raised vpon some misprision or misunderstanding of the Barbers words. Very loath I am to leaue so base an imputation vpon so honourable a Commaunder; as to owe his life, all this while, vnto a devilish inchantment: which is practised by none, but the reprobate raskalitie of the Armie; such as the meanest common Souldier that respects his credite, but will scorne to keepe company withall. A common practise, indeede, it is in Germany: which you see the King of Sweden hath vpon paine of death forbid­den, in the first of his Articles of Warre. Tilly after this, was sayd to speake of nothing but of Peace, and of making a good Peace, which is, indeede, farre more happie than victory.

[Page 33] The newes of this overthrow being carryed vnto Rome, the Pope (as tis reported) aloud pronounced, Salva Roma, Salva est Eoclesia: Rome is safe, and the Church is safe. The man, perchance was afraid, that if the House of Austria should ever arriue at their expected Monarchy; they would put in practise that designe of the Founder of their greatnesse, Charles 5. Emperour; which was, That when he beseigning Rome heard newes that his Generall the Duke of Burbon was slaine before the walles of it; he by hisThese letters were intercep­ted by the Pope and seut over hither vnto Cardinall Woolsey. Letters appoynted Hugo a Moncado to goe on with the siege, and to take the Pope prisoner: and I (sayth the Emperour) will come downe with the rest of the Armie from Barcelona, and bring Fryar Angelo with me: whom I will make Pope, and reduce the Pope into the order of another Arch-bishop.

The Italians of Mantua, Montferat, and those places, hearing also of this Victory; openly protested that it was justly fallen vpon the Emperour for their sakes: by whose Armies they had beene so miserably handled the last yeare. The Protestants, every where, tooke it for the beginning of their hopes and comforts. The Popishly affected in all Coun­tryes, that honour the House of Austria more then they doe the Pope; and that preferre Catholike, before Romane; they gaue out braue words after it, saying, Let the King of Sweden doe what he pleases this Winter time; but when Summer comes, he must be put to another Battell. The King of Swe­den, his Armie, and well-wishers; they gaue God thankes for it. And thus was the newes of this famous victory, by severall people, severally entertained.

Here followeth the Explication of the severall Numbers and Arithmeticall Fi­gures, in the two Mappes of the Battell of LEIPSICH. By which Figures, the numbers of every Regiment or Division, with the names and places of the Comman­ders in all the three Armyes, may readi­ly be found out; for the better vnderstanding of the Story.

IN the Army of the Count of Tilly, the number 1, signifies the Renconish Regi­ment, 2 the Merodish. 3 the new Saxish. 4 the Baumgartish. 5 the Piccolominish. 6 the Strotzish. 7 the Duke of Holsteins. 8 the Chesuish. 9 the Gallafish. 10 that of Sas and Fur­stenberg. 11 Monte-Cuculies. 12 that of Balderon and Diederickstein. 13 of Tilly. 14 of Coronino. 15 the Goie­sish. 16 of Coloredo. 17. of Erwitz. 18 the Duke of Savelli. 19 Blanckharts. 20 Pappenheyms. 21 Hare­courts. 22 the Grottish 23 the Italian. 24 Wanglers. 25 Bernsteyns. 26 Schombergs. 27 Cronenbergs. 28 the old Saxonish. 29 the Wingerskish. All these were Re­giments. 30 some troupes of Crabats commaunded by Isolan. 31 some troupes of Dragoniers, old exerci­sed and well appoynted men.

[Page 36] In his Majestie of Swedens Armie. 32, 33, eyght troupes of Finlandish Horse, commaunded by Wuns­ches. 34 an hundred and eighty commaunded Mus­kettiers of Generall Banniers. 35, 36, 37, Twelue troupes of Generall Tots Horse. 38 An hundred and fourescore commanded Muskettiers of Gen. Bannier aforesayd. 39 eight troupes of West-Gothish Horse­men, commaunded by Soops. 40 An hundred and eighty Muskettiers of Gen. Banniers. 41 eight troups of Smalandish Horse, of the Lord Stenbocks. 42 An hundred & fourescore Muskettiers of Colonell Hall. 43 Foure troupes of East-Gothish Horse. 44 Foure foote companyes of Colonell Axel Lillies. 45 Foure companyes on foote of Axel Oxenstierns. 46 Foure foote-companies of Hastfers. 47, 48, 49. Twelue companyes on foote of his Majesties owne Guards, commaunded by the Baron Dyvel. 50 Foure com­panyes on foot of Erich Hands. 51 Foure companyes on foote of Col: Halls. 52 Foure companyes on foot of Hohendorffs. 53, 54, 55. Twelue companyes on Foote of Col. Winckles. 56 Two troupes of Horse of his Excellency the Lord Feild-Marshall Gustavus Horne. 57 Fiue troupes of Horse of Collenbachs. 58 Three hundred and sixtie Muskettiers. 59 Fiue troupes of Horse of Collenbachs. 60 Two hundred and eighty Muskettiers of Axel Oxenstierns. 61 Three troupes of Horse of Col. Baudissen. 62 Three hun­dred Muskettiers of Erich Hands. 63 Three troupes of Horse of Col. Baudissens. 64 Three hundred Mus­kettiers of Erich Hands. 65 Three troupes of Horse of Col. Baudissens. 66 Two hundred and threescore Muskettiers of Hamiltons. 67 Fiue troupes of Horse [Page 37] of his Majesties own Guards, commaunded by Col. Vsler. 68 Foure hundred Muskettiers of Monroes. 69 Fiue troupes of Horse of Col. Vsler. 70. Three hundred and fiftie Muskettiers of Ramseys. 71, 72, 73. Twelue troupes of Horse of the Lord Colonell the Rhinegraves. 74 Foure troupes of Lifflandish Horsemen. 75 Foure troupes of Curlandish Horse­men. 76 Three troupes of Horse of Col. Damitzens. 77 Foure troupes of Horse of Colonell Sperreuters. 78 Foure companies on Foote of Col. Wallensteyns. 79 Foure companyes on foote of Col. Hall and the Count of Thurne. 80 Foure companyes on foote of Col. Damitzens. 81 Foure companyes on foote of Col. Dargitzens. 82 Foure companyes on foote of Colonell Hebrons. 83 Foure companyes on foote. 84 Foure companyes on foote of Colonel Michefals. 85 Foure companyes on foote of Col. Vitzthumbs. 86 Foure companyes on foote of Redwens. 87, 88. Twelue troupes of Horse of Col. Hall. 89 Foure troupes of Horse of Col. Corvills. 90 Fiue troupes of Horse of Col. Schaffmans. 91 Fiue troupes of horse of Col. Cochtitsky.

In his Highnesse the Elector of Saxonyes Armie, 92, 93. Some troupes of Horse of Colonell Steins. 94, 95. Eight troupes of Horse of Sergeant-Major-Generall Bindhauffs. 96 Some troupes of Horse of the Gentlemen of the Countrey. 97 His Excellencies the Lord Feild-Marshall Arnheyms troupes of horse­guards. 98, 99. Ten foote companyes of the same Lords. 100, 101. Ten companyes on foote of Col. Swalbach, Generall of the Ordnance. 102 Ten com­panyes [Page 38] on foote of Col. Losers. 103 Six free com­panyes on foote of the Dukes owne Guards. 104, 105. Ten foote companyes of Col. Glitzings. 106, 107. Ten companyes on foote of Col. Starschedels. 108. Some Horse-troupes of the Countrey Gentle­mens. 109, 110. Eight troupes of Horse of his High­nesse William Duke of Saxon-Altenberg. 111, 112, 113. The Duke of Saxonyes owne Horse-Guards, commaunded by Lieutenant-Colonel Tauben.

And this is the List both of Horse and Foote, to­gether with the Commaunders of all three Armyes. Tillyes are here set downe in generall, and by the Re­giments onely, so farre forth as the Swedish Descri­ber of these Mappes could learne from the prisoners. As for the Kings, they (you see) are set downe most exactly. Which will be worth the Readers paines to examine.


THat worke is well gone thorough, which is begunne with Prayer, and concluded with Thanksgiving; and so is this Swedish Discipline: which even herin resembles ye rest of this Princes actions. This glorious Victory be­ing so admirably thus atchieved; if not beyond the hopes of the Protestants, yet surely cleane besides the feares or doubts of the Catholikes: who besides the confidence they had in their owne Forces, which they esteemed Invincible; had a Generall withall, who amongst the three Boasts he was wont to make, had this for one; That he never lost Battayle. But now hath he lost both Game and Lurch too. Now hath he lost such a Battell, as Leipsich hath fully made amends for Prague; Saxony for Bohemia. And yet so farre were our Protestant-Warriours from ascribing this [Page 40] vnto their own strength or swords; that they decreed to haue the Thankes for all, publikely returned vnto that Lord of Hoasts; whom the King in answere to his former Prayers, had now found so mightie in Battell. No sooner therefore were the Swedish Conquerours come together againe from pursuing of the fleeing e­nemy; but they were summoned to a Bid-day, pro­claymed throughout all the Saxon Dominions, for a publicke and solemne Thankesgiving vnto GOD, for this so glorious a Victory. And that the Forme of it might not be left to every new-fangled inventi­on, but that the Devotion might be doubled by the V­niformitie: the Ministers had this Forme of Thankes­giving prescribed vnto them, to be in all their Chur­ches rehearsed out of the Pulpit.

O Lord God, all-puissant and invincible; wee here giue thankes vnto thee, for that by thine Annoynted, the King of Sweden, and the Elec­tor of Saxony; thou hast wrought so great salvation for thy people, and these Provinces: because thy mercy endureth for ever.

Thou O Lord God of Sabbaoth, foughtest for thy people: 'tis thou that deliveredst vs from our cruell enemies: because thy mercy endureth for ever.

The enemy had threatned vs, that he would ruine and lay waste all our Countrey with fire; massacre all the men with the sword; and leade our yong men and maydens into Captivitie. But thou, O God Al­mightie, hast with-held them; thou hast put them vnto flight; thou hast defeated them with thine owne Army: because thy mercy endureth for ever.

[Page 41] Thou, Lord, hast revenged thy people, because thy mercy endureth for ever.

From the very bottome of our hearts doe we giue thee thankes, O Lord, we tell forth all thy wonder­full workes: in thee doe we rejoyce, and prayse thy Name, O thou most High, for that thou hast thus repulsed our enemies. They are falne and perished in thy sight: thou, Lord, hast pleaded our cause, and thou hast executed the Iudgement; that thou migh­test manifest thy selfe to be a just Iudge: because thy mercy endureth for ever.

Thou remembredst vs, O faithfull God, that wee were sorely oppressed: because thy mercy endureth for ever.

The waters had gone over our soules, but thou O Lord God, gavest vs not over for a prey vnto the teeth of the enemy: because thy mercy endureth for ever.

Our soule is escaped, like a bird out of the snare of the fowler; the snare is broken, and we are delive­red: because thy mercy endureth for ever.

Furthermore, wee here invoke, and from the ve­ry bottome of our hearts we beseech thee, O most mercifull God; that with thy temporall and eternall blessing thou wouldest reward, that faithfull agree­ment so duely performed betweene his Majestie the King of Sweden, and the Elector our Gracious Lord: be present in time to come with them, and with their Armyes: let thy right hand potently assist them: grant a long life vnto them both, that their yeares may endure for ever; that so they may sit vpon the Throne for ever together before thee: affoord thy [Page 42] goodnesse and faithfulnesse vnto them, which may preserue them.

Heape victories vpon them, O mercifull God; and rowse and lift vp thy selfe against the fury of our enemies: refraine thou their malice; cause them to fall into the pit which they haue digged for vs.

Be mindfull of our bloud, O Lord; throw downe the wicked headlong into hell; suffer not men to haue the dominion over vs: manifest thy wonderfull goodnesse, O thou preserver of them that trust in thee, against those that are enemies vnto thy right hand. Keepe vs as the apple of thine eye: protect vs vnder the shadow of thy wings: even against the wicked that destroy vs, against our enemies that on every side lye in waite for vs. Arise, O Lord, and scatter them yet more and more; deliver our liues from the wicked, which is a sword of thine. Turne, moreover, our enemies vnto flight; scatter them like the dust, & put them away like the clay in the streets. Remember, Lord, that the Enemies (the Pope and his followers) doe reproach thee; and that the foolish people speake ill of thy Name.

Revenge now thine owne honour, O Lord; why should thine and our enemies say, Where is now their God? Arise vp, Lord, and overturne the Anti­christian Papacie: and maintaine, on the other side, thine owne Word, which is the very joy of our hearts. We verily, O Lord of Sabbaoth, are called after thy Name; thou knowest that for thee alone wee suffer persecution. Deliver vs therefore out of the hand of the wicked; and free vs from the power of Tyrants: and the more they oppose vs, the vay­ner [Page 43] let their vndertakings be. Be with vs, and stay still with vs; that thou mayst helpe vs and deliver vs. Blesse, O God of peace, this thy people: and grant thy peace especially, vnto this whole Electorate of Saxony; thou hast promised, O God, that thou wilt giue peace vnto thy people. Let righteousnesse and peace kisse each other. Grant vs a good peace: con­ceiue thoughts of peace vpon vs: procure thou and preserue a sweet peace within our gates.

And we on the other side will giue due thankes vnto thee for the same: we will laud and prayse thee for it: in this world for a time, and in the next vn­to all eternitie. Even thee, we say, who li­vest and reignest one, true, highly to be praysed, and blessed GOD, from this time forth and for evermore, A­men, Amen.


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